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Analysis of soybean chloroplast DNA replication by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis


Chloroplast DNA replication was studied in the green, autotrophic suspension culture line SB-1 of Glycine max. Three regions (restriction fragments Sac I 14.5, Pvu II 4.1 and Pvu II 14.8) on the plastome were identified that displayed significantly higher template activity in in vitro DNA replication assays than all other cloned restriction fragments of the organelle genome, suggesting that these clones contain sequences that are able to direct initiation of DNA replication in vitro. In order to confirm that the potential in vitro origin sites are functional in vivo as well, replication intermediates were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using cloned restriction fragments as probes. The two Pvu II fragments that supported deoxynucleotide incorporation in vitro apparently do not contain a functional in vivo replication origin since replication intermediates from these areas of the plastome represent only fork structures. The Sac I 14.5 chloroplast DNA fragment, on the other hand, showed intermediates consistent with a replication bubble originating within its borders, which is indicative of an active in vivo origin. Closer examination of cloned Sac I 14.5 sub-fragments confirmed high template activity in vitro for two, S/B 5 and S/B 3, which also seem to contain origin sites utilized in vivo as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The types of replication intermediate patterns obtained for these sub-fragments are consistent with the double D-loop model for chloroplast DNA replication with both origins being located in the large unique region of the plastome [17, 18]. This is the first report of a chloroplast DNA replication origin in higher plants that has been directly tested for in vivo function.

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Hedrick, L.A., Heinhorst, S., White, M.A. et al. Analysis of soybean chloroplast DNA replication by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Plant Mol Biol 23, 779–792 (1993).

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Key words

  • chloroplast
  • DNA replication
  • origin
  • soybean
  • two-dimensional gel electrophoresis