The relationships between the dwarfing genes of wheat and rye

Summary

The improvement of lodging resistance by introducing major dwarfing genes, classified either as GA insensitive or GA sensitive, is one of the main strategies chosen by cereal breeders. In the present paper the current knowledge about the genetics, chromosomal localisation and the homoeoallelic relationships of the dwarfing genes in wheat and rye is reviewed. The confusing system of the symbolisation of the GA insensitive dwarfing genes/alleles in wheat is discussed and a nomenclature based on rules for gene symbolisation in wheat is proposed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Börner, A., 1991. Genetical studies of gibberellic acid insensitivity in rye (Secale cereale L.). Plant Breed. 106: 53–57.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Börner, A. & G. Melz, 1988. Response of rye genotypes differing in plant height to exogenous gibberellic acid application. Arch. Züchtungsforsch. 18: 79–82.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Börner, A. & D. Mettin, 1988. The genetic control of gibberellic acid insensitivity of the wheat variety Ai-Bain 1. p. 489–492. In: T.E. Miller & R.M.D. Koebner (Eds). Proc. 7th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp., Cambridge, England, Bath Press, Bath, Avon.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Börner, A. & J. Plaschke, 1995. Dwarfing genes of wheat and rye and its expression in Triticale. Proc. 3rd Int. Triticale Symp., Lisbon, Portugal, in press.

  5. Börner, A., G. Melz & J.R. Lenton, 1992a. Genetical and physiological studies of gibberellic acid insensitivity in semidwarf rye. Hereditas 116: 199–201.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Börner, A., A.J. Worland & C.N. Law, 1992b. Chromosomal location of genes for gibberellic acid insensitivity in ‘Chinese Spring’ wheat by tetrasomic analysis. Plant Breed. 108: 81–84.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Börner, A., M.D. Gale, N.E.J. Appleford & J.R. Lenton, 1993. Gibberellin status and responsiveness in shoots of tall and dwarf genotypes of diploid rye (Secale cereale). Physiol. Plantarum 89: 309–314.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Börner, A., J. Plaschke, V. Korzun, I.M. Ben Amer & S. Stracke, 1995. Wheat genetics research report. Ann. Wheat Newsletter 41: in press.

  9. Börner, A., C.O. Lehmann, D. Mettin, J. Plaschke, G. Schlegel, R. Schlegel, G. Melz & V. Thiele, 1991. GA-insensitivity of ‘Aibain 1a’/Pleiotropic effects of isogenic Rht-lines. Ann. Wheat Newsletter 37: 59–60.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Chang, T.D., 1975. Mapping of the gene for hairy peduncle (Hp) on rye chromosome 5R. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 17: 127–128.

    Google Scholar 

  11. De Vries, J.N. & J. Sybenga, 1984. Chromosomal location of 17 monogenically inherited morphological markers in rye (Secale cereale L.) using the translocation tester set. Z. Pflanzenzüchtg. 92: 117–139.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Devos, K.M., M.D. Atkinson, C.N. Chinoy, H.A. Francis, R.L. Harcourt, R.M.D. Koebner, C.J. Liu, P. Masojc, D.X. Xie & M.D. Gale, 1993. Chromosomal rearrangements in the rye genome relative to that of wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 85: 673–680.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Gale, M.D. & R.S. Gregory, 1977. A rapid method for early generation selection of dwarf genotypes in wheat. Euphytica 26: 733–739.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Gale, M.D. & G.A. Marshall, 1976. The chromosomal location of Gai1 and Rht1 genes for gibberellin insensitivity and semidwarfism, in a derivate of Norin 10 wheat. Heredity 37: 283–289.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Gale, M.D. & S. Youssefian, 1985. Dwarfing genes in wheat I. p. 1–35. In: G.E. Russell (Ed). Progress in Plant Breeding. Butterworths and Co., London.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Gale, M.D., C.N. Law & A.J. Worland, 1975a. The chromosomal location of a major dwarfing gene from Norin 10 in new British semi-dwarf wheats. Heredity 35: 417–421.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Gale, M.D., C.N. Law, G.A. Marshall & A.J. Worland, 1975b. The genetic control of gibberellic acid insensitivity and coleoptile length in a dwarf wheat. Heredity 34: 393–399.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Kobyliansky, V.D., 1972. On genetics of the dominant factor of short-strawed rye. Genetika 8: 12–17.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Koller, O.L. & F.J. Zeller, 1976. The homoeologous relationships of rye chromosomes 4R and 7R with wheat chromosomes. Genet. Res. Camb. 28: 177–188.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Konzak, C.F., 1982. Evaluation and genetic analysis of semi-dwarf mutants of wheat. p. 25–37. In: Semi-dwarf Cereal Mutants and their Use in Cross Breeding, IAEA-TEECDOC 268. Proc. of a Research Co-ordination Meeting, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna, Austria, March 1981.

  21. Konzak, C.F., 1987. Rht-genes. Ann. Wheat Newsletter 33: 174–175.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Lenton, J.R., R. Hedden & M.D. Gale, 1987. Gibberellin insensitivity and depletion in wheat—consequences for development. p. 145–160. In: G.V. Hoad, J.R. Lenton, M.B. Jackson & R.K. Atkin (Eds). Hormone Action in Plant Development—A Critical Appraisal. Butterworths, London.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Liu, C.J., M.D. Atkinson, C.N. Chinoy, K.M. Devos & M.D. Gale, 1992. Nonhomoeologous translocations between group 4, 5 and 7 chromosomes within wheat and rye. Theor. Appl. Genet. 83: 305–312.

    Google Scholar 

  24. McIntosh, R.A., 1988. A catalogue of gene symbols for wheat. p. 1225–1323. In: T.E. Miller & R.M.D. Koebner (Eds). Proc. 7th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp., Cambridge, England. Bath Press, Bath, Avon.

    Google Scholar 

  25. McVittie, J.A., M.D. Gale, G.A. Marshall & B. Westcott, 1978. The intrachromosoal mapping of the Norin 10 and Tom Thumb dwarfing genes. Heredity 40: 67–70.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Melz, G., 1989. Beiträge zur Genetik des Roggens (Secale cereale L.). Dsc. Thesis, Berlin. 173 p.

  27. Melz, G., R. Schlegel & J. Sybenga, 1988. Identification of the chromosomes in the ‘Esto’ set of rye trisomics. Plant Breeding 100: 169–172.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Melz, G., H. Neumann, H.W. Müller & W. Sturm, 1984. Genetical analysis of rye (Secale cereale L.) I. Results of gene localization on rye chromosomes using primary trisomics. Genetica Polonica 25: 111–115.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Miller, T.E., 1984. The homoeologous relationship between the chromosomes of rye and wheat. Current status. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 26: 578–589.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Naranjo, T., A. Roca, P.G. Giocoecha & R. Giraldez, 1987. Arm homoeology of wheat and rye chromosomes. Genome 29: 873–882.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Plaschke, J., A. Börner, D.X. Xie, R.M.D. Koebner, R. Schlegel & M.D. Gale, 1993. RFLP-mapping of genes affecting plant height and growth habit in rye. Theor. Appl. Genet. 85: 1049–1054.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Plaschke, J., V. Korzun, R.M.D. Koebner & A. Börner, 1995. Mapping of the GA3-insensitive dwarfing gene ct1 on chromosome 7R in rye. Plant Breed., in press.

  33. Reid, J.B., 1986. Gibberellin mutants. p. 1–34. In: A.D. Blonstein & P.J. King (Eds). Plant Gene Research—A Genetic Approach to Plant Biochemistry. Springer-Verlag, Wien, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Smirnov, V.G. & S.P. Sosnichina, 1984. Rye genetics. Izdatel'stvo Leningradskogo Universiteta, 264 p.

  35. Snape, J.W., C.N. Law & A.J. Worland, 1977. Whole chromosome analysis of height in wheat. Heredity 38: 25–36.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Sturm, W. & K.-H. Engel, 1980. Trisomenanalyse des Allels Hl für Kurzstrohigkeit bei Secale cereale L. Arch. Züchtungsforsch. 10: 31–35.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Sutka, J. & G. Kovacs, 1987. Chromosomal location of dwarfing gene Rht12 in wheat. Euphytica 36: 521–523.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Sybenga, J. & R. Prakken, 1962. Gene analysis in rye. Genetica 33: 95–105.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Vogel, O.A., 1964. Registration of Gaines wheat. Crop Sci. 4: 116–117.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Worland, A.J., 1986. Gibberellic acid insensitive dwarfing genes in Southern European wheats. Euphytica 35: 857–866.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Worland, A.J., 1987. Co-operative studies on the genetics of height in European wheat varieties. EWAC Newsletter, Proc. of the EWAC Conference 1987, Martonvasar: 69–82.

  42. Worland, A.J. & C.N. Law, 1986. Genetic analysis of chromosome 2D of wheat. I. The location of genes affecting height, day-length insensitivity, hybrid dwarfism and yellow rust resistance. Z. Pflanzenzüchtg. 96: 331–345.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Worland, A.J. & S. Petrovic, 1988. The gibberellic acid insensitive dwarfing gene from the wheat variety Saitama 27. Euphytica 38: 55–63.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Worland, A.J. & S. Petrovic, 1990. Height reducing genes and their importance to Yugoslavian winter wheat varieties. Savremena Poljopriveda 38: 245–258.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Worland, A.J., C.N. Law & A. Shakoor, 1980. The genetical analysis of an induced height mutant in wheat. Heredity 45: 61–71.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Worland, A.J., E.J. Sayers & A. Börner, 1994. The genetics and breeding potential of Rht12, a dominant dwarfing gene in wheat. Plant Breed.: 187–196.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Börner, A., Plaschke, J., Korzun, V. et al. The relationships between the dwarfing genes of wheat and rye. Euphytica 89, 69–75 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00015721

Download citation

Key words

  • dwarfing genes
  • gene mapping
  • GA insensitivity
  • rye
  • Secale cereale
  • Triticum aestivum
  • wheat