Plant and Soil

, Volume 154, Issue 2, pp 145–150 | Cite as

Acetobacter diazotrophicus, an indoleacetic acid producing bacterium isolated from sugarcane cultivars of México

  • L. E. Fuentes-Ramirez
  • T. Jimenez-Salgado
  • I. R. Abarca-Ocampo
  • J. Caballero-Mellado
Research Article


Thirteen cane cultivars grown on fields in México were sampled to assess the occurrence of Acetobacter diazotrophicus, a recently identified N2-fixing bacterium. Results showed that the isolation frequencies extended over a broad range (1.1 to 67%), likely to be related to the nitrogen fertilization level. The lowest isolation frequencies (1.1 to 2.5%) were obtained from plants growing at high nitrogen doses (275–300 kg ha-1) and the highest values (10–67%) from plants cultivated with 120 kg N ha-1. All eighteen strains of A. diazotrophicus produced indoleacetic acid (IAA) in defined culture medium. Estimates obtained from HPLC analyses revealed that A. diazotrophicus strains produced from 0.14 to 2.42 μg IAA mL-1 in culture medium. Considering that A. diazotrophicus is found within the plant tissue, the biosynthesis of IAA suggests that the bacteria could promote rooting and improve sugarcane growth by direct effects on metabolic processes, in addition to their role in N2 fixation.

Key words

auxins diazotrophic bacteria endophytic bacteria sugarcane 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Balandreau J 1983 Microbiology of the association. Can. J. Microbiol. 29, 851–859.Google Scholar
  2. Barea J M and Brown M E 1974 Effects on plant growth produced by Azotobacter paspali related to synthesis of plant growth regulating substances. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 37, 583–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Boddey R M, Urquiaga S, Reis V and Döbereiner J 1991 Biological nitrogen fixation associated with sugar cane. Plant and Soil 137, 111–117.Google Scholar
  4. Brown M E 1972 Plant growth substances produced by microorganisms of soil and rhizosphere. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 35, 443–451.Google Scholar
  5. Cavalante V A and Döbereiner J 1988 A new acid-tolerant nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugarcane. Plant and Soil 108, 23–31.Google Scholar
  6. Clark A G 1974 Indole acetic acid production by Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species. Microbios 11A, 29–35.Google Scholar
  7. Crozier A, Arruda P, Jasmim J M, Monteiro A M and Sandberg G 1988 Analysis of indole-3-acetic acid and related indoles in culture medium from Azospirillum lipoferum and Azospirillum brasilense. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54, 2833–2837.Google Scholar
  8. DeLey J, Swings J and Gosselé F 1984 Genus I. Acetobacter beijerinck 1898, 215. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Eds. N R Krieg and J G Holt, Vol I, pp 268–274. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, USA.Google Scholar
  9. Döbereiner J 1961 Nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Beijerinckia Derx in the rhizosphere of sugar cane. Plant and Soil 15, 211–216.Google Scholar
  10. Ehmann A 1977 The Van Urk-Salkowski reagent — a sensitive and specific chromatogenic reagent for silica gel thin-layer chromatographic detection and identification of indole derivatives. J. Chromatogr. 132, 267–276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gillis M, Kersters K, Hoste B, Janssens D, Kroppenstedt M, Stephan M P, Teixeira K R S, Döbereiner J and DeLey J 1989 Acetobacter diazotrophicus sp nov., a nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacterium associated with sugarcane. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39, 361–364.Google Scholar
  12. Harari A, Kigel J and Okon Y 1988 Involvement of IAA in the interaction between Azospirillum brasilence and Panicum miliaceum roots. Plant and Soil 110, 275–282.Google Scholar
  13. Hartmann A, Singh M and Klingmüller W 1983 Isolation and characterization of Azospirillum mutants excreting high amounts of indoleacetic acid. Can. J. Microbiol. 29, 916–923.Google Scholar
  14. Iino M, Yu R S T and Carr D J 1980 Improved procedure for the stimation of nanogram quantities of indole-3-acetic acid in plant extracts using the Indolo-α-pyrone fluorescence method. Plant Physiol. 66, 1099–1105.Google Scholar
  15. Jain D K and Patriquin D G 1985 Characterization of a substance produced by Azospirillum which causes branching of wheat root hair. Can. J. Microbiol. 31, 206–210.Google Scholar
  16. Li R P and Macrae I C 1991 Specific association of diazotrophic acetobacters with sugarcane. Soil Biol. Biochem. 23, 999–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Libbert E and Risch H 1969 Interactions between plants and epiphytic bacteria regarding their auxin metabolism. V. Isolation and identification of the IAA-producing and-destroying bacteria from pea plants. Physiol. Plant 22, 51–58.Google Scholar
  18. Libbert E, Wichner S, Schiewer U, Risch H and Kaiser W 1966 The influence of epiphytic bacteriae on auxin metabolism. Planta (Berl.) 68, 327–334.Google Scholar
  19. Mascarúa-Esparza M A, Villa-González R and Caballero-Mellado J 1988 Acetylene reduction and indoleacetic acid production by Azospirillum isolates from Cactaceous plants. Plant and Soil 106, 91–95.Google Scholar
  20. Oaks A 1992 A re-evaluation of nitrogen assimilation in roots. BioScience 42, 103–111.Google Scholar
  21. Patriquin D G, Döbereiner J and Jain D K 1983 Sites and processes of association between diazotrophs and grasses. Can. J. Microbiol. 29, 900–915.Google Scholar
  22. Prikryl Z, Vancura V and Wurst M 1985 Auxin formation by rhizosphere bacteria as a factor of root growth. Biol. Plantarum 27, 159–163.Google Scholar
  23. Rennie R J, Freitas J R de, Ruschel A P and Vose P B 1982 Isolation and identification of N2-fixing bacteria associated with sugar cane (Saccharum sp.). Can. J. Microbiol. 28, 462–467.Google Scholar
  24. Ruschel A P and Vose P B 1984 Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane. In Current Developments in Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Ed. N S Subba Rao. pp 219–235. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd. London.Google Scholar
  25. Sandberg G, Crozier A and Ernstsen A 1987 Indole-3-acetic acid and related compounds. In Principles and Practice of Plant Hormone Analysis. Eds. L. Rivier and A. Crozier. pp 169–301. Academic Press Inc. London.Google Scholar
  26. Sheldrake A R 1973 The production of hormones in higher plants. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 48, 509–559.Google Scholar
  27. Tang Y W and Bonner J 1947 The enzymatic inactivation of indoleacetic acid. I. Some characteristics of the enzyme contained in pea seedlings. Arch. Biochem. 13, 11–25.Google Scholar
  28. Tien T M, Gaskins M H and Hubbell D H 1979 Plant growth substances produced by Azospirillum brasilense and their effect on the growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L.). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37, 1016–1024.Google Scholar
  29. Young J P W 1992 Phylogenetic classification of nitrogen-fixing organisms. In Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Eds. G. Stacey, R. H. Burris and H. J. Evans. pp 43–86. Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Zafar Y, Wahid A, Rasul E and Malik K A 1986 Root associated nitrogen fixation by sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L. var. Col-54) in Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot. 18, 221–228.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. E. Fuentes-Ramirez
    • 1
  • T. Jimenez-Salgado
    • 1
  • I. R. Abarca-Ocampo
    • 1
  • J. Caballero-Mellado
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro de Investigaciones Microbiológicas, Instituto de CienciasUniversidad Autónoma de PueblaPuebla, Pue.México

Personalised recommendations