Plant and Soil

, Volume 137, Issue 2, pp 243–257 | Cite as

Growth of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seedlings on acid sulfate soils as affected by water regime and aluminium

  • Edgardo A. Auxtero
  • J. Shamshuddin
Article

Abstract

In Malaysia, acid sulfate soils contain high amounts of aluminium and are usually utilized for oil palm cultivation. As these soils are frequently flooded during rainy periods, it is thought that this may affect the growth performance of the oil palm. A glasshouse experiment was, therefore, conducted to study the effects of water regime and aluminium on the growth of oil palm seedlings. Soils used in the experiment were Typic Sulfaquepts and Sulfic Tropaquepts from Pulau Lumut Island, Malaysia. Best growth was observed on a non-jarositic freely drained topsoil. Oil palm seedlings were found the be moderately tolerant to soil acidity. Growth was only affected if Al3+ and Alsum activities in the soil solutions were above 100 and 700 μ M, respectively. Root length was found to be one of the better parameters to predict crop growth, while others included plant height, fron length and LAI. Soil solution attributes which could be used as indices of soil acidity for oil palm growth were pH and activities of Al3+, AlSO4+ and Alsum.

Key words

acid sulfate soils Al species drainage conditions oil palm seedlings 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alva A K, Edwards D G, Asher C J and Blamey F P C 1986 Relationship between root length of soybean and calculated activities of aluminium monomers in nutrient solution. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 54, 959–962.Google Scholar
  2. Barnhisel R and Bertsch P M 1982 Aluminium. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2, 2nd ed. Eds. A LPage et al. pp 275–300. Agronomy Monog. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  3. Blamey F P C, Edwards D G and Asher C J 1983 Effects of aluminium, OH:Al and P:Al molar ratios and ionic strength on soyabean root elongation in solution culture. Soil Sci. 136, 197–207.Google Scholar
  4. Bloomfield C, Coulter J K and Kanaris-sotirious R 1968 Oil plams on acid sulfate soils in Malaya. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 45, 289–300.Google Scholar
  5. Chaney R F 1987 GEOCHEM-PC 1.21. USDA-ARS, Soil-Microbial Laboratory. Bldg. 318, BARC, Beltsville MD 20705, USA.Google Scholar
  6. Chapman H D 1965 Determination of cation exchange capacity. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2, 1st ed. Eds. C ABlack et al. pp 891–900. Agronomy Monog. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  7. Chew P S, Kee K K and Ooi L H 1984 Management of coconut and cocoa on acid sulfate soils. Planter 60, 483–498.Google Scholar
  8. Cramer G R and Läuchli A 1986 Ion activities in solution in relation to sodium and calcium interactions at the plasmalemma. J. Exp. Bot. 37, 321–330.Google Scholar
  9. Freeney J R 1986 Analytical methods for determining sulfur in soils and plant. In Proc. International Symposium on Sulfur in Agricultural Soils. Eds. Sam Portch and Ghulam Hussain. pp 67–84. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council and Sulfur Institute.Google Scholar
  10. Gee G W and Bauder J W 1982 Particle-size analysis. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1, 2nd ed. Eds. A LPageet al. pp 383–412. Agronomy Monog. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  11. Griffin R A and Jurinak J J 1973 Estimation of activity coefficient from electrical conductivity of natural aquatic system and extracts. Soil Sci. 115, 26–30.Google Scholar
  12. Hardon J J, Williams C N and IWatson 1969 Leaf areas and yield in the oil palm in Malaya. Exp. Agric. 5, 25–32.Google Scholar
  13. Harrisons and Crosfield 1973 A Guide to Better Nursery Techniques. Sun U Book Co., Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  14. Kanapathy K 1973 Reclamation and improvement of acid sulfate soils in West Malaysia. p. 383–390. In Proc. Symposium on Acid Sulfate Soils. Ed. H Dost. ILRI 18, Vol. 2, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  15. Kerven G L, Edwards D G, Asher C J, Hallman P S and SKokot 1989 Aluminium determination in soil solution. 11: Short term colorimetric procedures for the measurement of inorganic monomeric aluminium in the presence of organic acid ligands. Aust. J. Soil Res. 27, 91–102.Google Scholar
  16. Mehra O P and Jackson M L 1960 Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by dithionite-citrate system with bicarbonate buffer. Clays and Clay Minerals 7, 317–327.Google Scholar
  17. Menzies N W and Bell L C 1988 Evaluation of the influence of sample preparation and extraction technique on soil solution composition. Aust. J. Soil Res. 26, 451–464.Google Scholar
  18. Nieuwolt S M, Zaki Ghazali M and Gopinathan B 1982 Agroecological Regions in Peninsular Malaysia. MARDI, Serdang, Malaysia. 20 p.Google Scholar
  19. Paramananthan S and Noordin W D 1986 Classification of acid sulfate soils of Peninsular Malaysia. Pertanika 9, 323–330.Google Scholar
  20. Poon Y C 1977 The management of acid sulfate soils and its effect on the growth of oil palm. Malays. Agric. J. 51, 124–141.Google Scholar
  21. Poon Y C and Bloomfield C 1977 The amelioration of acid sulfate soils with respect to oil palm. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 54, 289–305.Google Scholar
  22. Sposito G and Mattigod S V 1980 GEOCHEM: A computer program for calculation of chemical equilibrium in soil solution and other natural water systems. Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, University of California, Riverside.Google Scholar
  23. Tabatabai M A 1982 Sulfur. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2, 2nd ed. Eds. A LPage et al. pp 501–539. Agronomy Monog. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  24. Toh P Y and Poon Y C 1982 Effect of water management on field performance of oil palm in Peninsular Malaysia. In Proc. of Bangkok Symposium on Acid Sulfate Soils. Eds. H Dost and N van Breemen. pp 260–212. ILRI Publication 31. Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  25. Van Breemen N 1982 Genesis, morphology and classification of acid sulfate soils in coastal plains. In Acid Sulfate Weathering. Eds. J A Kittrick et al. pp 95–108. SSSA Special Publication No. 10, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  26. Yeow K H, Poon Y C and Toh P Y 1977 Effect of bunch ash on oil palm performance and soil properties of acid sulfate soils. In Proc. Conference on Classification and Management of Tropical Soils. Ed. K TJoseph. pp 536–544. Malays. Soc. Soil Sci, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  27. Wong I F T 1986 Soil-Crop Suitability Classification for Peninsular Malaysia. Ministry of Agriculture Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur. 70 p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edgardo A. Auxtero
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Shamshuddin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.College of AgricultureCentral Mindanao UniversityMusuanthe Philippines
  2. 2.Department of Soil ScienceFaculty of AgricultureSerdangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations