Erratic rainfall in rainfed lowlands and inadequate water supply in irrigated lowlands can results in alternate soil drying and flooding during a rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping period. Effects of alternate soil drying and flooding on N loss by nitrification-denitrification have been inconsistent in previous field research. To determine the effects of water deficit and urea timing on soil NO3 and NH4, floodwater NO3, and N loss from added 15N-labeled urea, a field experiment was conducted for 2 yr on an Andaqueptic Haplaquoll in the Philippines. Water regimes were continuously flooded, not irrigated from 15 to 35 d after transplanting (DT), or not irrigated from 41 to 63 DT. The nitrogen treatments in factorial combination with water regimes were no applied N and 80 kg urea-N ha−1, either applied half basally and half at 37 DT or half at 11 DT and half at 65 DT. Water deficit at 15 to 35 DT and 41 to 63 DT, compared with continuous soil flooding, significantly reduced extractable NH4 in the top 30-cm soil layer and resulted in significant but small (<1.0 kg N ha−1) soil NO3 accumulations. Soil NO3, which accumulated during the water deficit, rapidly disappeared after reflooding. Water deficit at 15 to 35 DT, unlike that at 41 to 63 DT, increased the gaseous loss of added urea N as determined from unrecovered 15N in 15N balances. The results indicate that application of urea to young rice in saturated or flooded soil results in large, rapid losses of N (mean = 35% of applied N), presumably by NH3 volatilization. Subsequent soil drying and flooding during the vegetative growth phase can result in additional N loss (mean = 14% of applied N), presumably by nitrification-denitrification. This additional N loss due to soil drying and flooding decreases with increasing crop age, apparently because of increased competition by rice with soil microorganisms for NH4 and NO3.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Adachi, K 1990 Effect of rice-soil puddling on water percolation. Trans. 14th Int. Cong. Soil Sci., Kyoto, Japan. 1, 146–151.
Bacon, P E, McGarity, J W, Hoult, E H and Alter, D 1986 Soil mineral nitrogen concentrations within cycles of flood irrigation: Effect of rice stubble and fertilization management. Soil Biol. Biochem. 18, 173–178.
Buresh, R J, Austin, E R and Craswell, E T 1982 Analytical methods in 15N research. Fert. Res. 3, 37–62.
Buresh, R J, DeDatta, S K, Samson, M I, Phongpan, S, Snitwongse, P, Fagi, A M and Tejasarwana, R 1991 Dinitrogen and nitrous oxide flux from urea basally applied to puddled rice soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55, 268–273.
Castillo, E G, Buresh, R J and Ingram, K T 1992. Lowland rice yield as affected by timing of water deficit and nitrogen fertilization. Agron. J. 84, 152–159.
DeDatta, S K and Buresh, R J 1989 Integrated nitrogen management in irrigated rice. Adv. Soil Sci. 10, 143–169.
DeDatta, S K, Buresh, R J, Samson, M I, Obcemea, W N and Real, J G 1991 Direct measurement of ammonia and denitrification fluxes from urea applied to rice. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55, 543–548.
DeDatta, S K, Fillery, I R P and Craswell, E T 1983 Results of recent studies on nitrogen fertilizer efficiency in wetland rice. Outl. Agric. 12, 125–134.
DeDatta, S K, Obcemea, W N, Chen, R Y, Calabio, J C and Evangelista, R C 1987 Effect of water depth on nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen-15 balance in lowland rice. Agron. J. 79, 210–216.
Doran, J W, Mielke, L N and Power, J F 1990 Microbial activity as regulated by soil water-filled pore space. Trans. 14th Int. Cong. Soil Sci., Kyoto, Japan. 3, 94–99.
Dorich, R A and Nelson, D W 1984 Evaluation of manual cadmium reduction methods for determination of nitrate inpotassium chloride extracts of soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 72–75.
Eriksen, A B, Kjeldby, M and Nilsen, S 1985 The effect of intermittent flooding on the growth and yield of wetland rice and nitrogen-loss mechanism with surface applied and deep placed urea. Plant and Soil 84, 387–401.
Fillery, I R P and Vlek, P L G 1982 The significance of denitrification of applied nitrogen in fallow and cropped rice soils under different flooding regimes. I. Greenhouse experiments. Plant and Soil 65, 153–169.
Fillery, I R P, Simpson, J R and DeDatta, S K 1986 Contribution of ammonia volatilization to total nitrogen loss after applications of urea to wetland rice fields. Fert. Res. 8, 193–202.
Gomez, K A and Gomez, A A 1984 Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. Second Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 680 p.
Hilsheimer, R and Harwig, J 1976 Colorimetric determination of nitrite from meat and other foods: An alternative colour reagent for the carcinogenic 1-napthylamine and an improved extraction method. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 9, 225–227.
Humphreys, E, Freney, J R, Muirhead, W A, Denmead, O T, Simpson, J R, Leuning, R, Trevitt, A C F, Obcemea, W N, Wetselaar, R and Gui-Xin, Cai 1988 Loss of ammonia after application of urea at different times to dry-seeded, irrigated rice. Fert. Res. 16, 47–57.
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) 1982 Annual report for 1981. Int. Rice Res. Inst., P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) 1989 IRRI toward 2000 and beyond. Int. Rice Res. Inst., P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.
Katyal, J C, Singh, Bijay, Vlek, P L G and Buresh, R J 1987 Efficient nitrogen use as affected by urea application and irrigation sequence. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51, 366–370.
Khind, C S and Ponnamperuma, F N 1981 Effects of water regimes on growth, yield, and nitrogen uptake of rice. Plant and Soil 59, 287–298.
Linn, D M and Doran, J W 1984 Effect of water-filled pore space on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide production in tilled and nontilled soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 1267–1272.
Reddy, K R and PatrickJr, W H 1986 Denitrification losses in flooded rice fields. Fert. Res. 9, 99–116.
Sharif Zia, M and Waring, S A 1987 Balance sheet of 15N labelled urea applied to rice in three Australian vertisols differing in soil organic carbon. Fert. Res. 12, 53–65.
Sharma, P K and DeDatta, S K 1986 Physical properties and processes of puddled rice soils. Adv. Soil Sci. 5, 139–178.
Stumpe, J M, Christianson, C B and Buresh, R J 1985 An aluminum block digestion procedure for determination of total N in soils containing 15N. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 16, 1–14.
Verdouw, H, Echteld, C J A and Dekkers, E M J 1978 Ammonia determination based on indophenol formation with sodium salicylate. Water Res. 12, 399–402.
Vlek, P L G and Byrnes, B H 1986 The efficacy and loss of fertilizer N in lowland rice. Fert. Res. 9, 131–147.
Wetselaar, R and Farquhar, G D 1980 Nitrogen losses from tops of plants. Adv. Agron. 33, 263–302.
White, R E, Haigh, R A and Macduff, J H 1987 Frequency distribution and spatially dependent variability of ammonium and nitrate concentrations in soil under grazed and ungrazed grassland. Fert. Res. 11, 193–208.
About this article
Cite this article
Buresh, R.J., Castillo, E.G. & De Datta, S.K. Nitrogen losses in puddled soils as affected by timing of water deficit and nitrogen fertilization. Plant Soil 157, 197–206 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00011048
- 15N, N loss
- nitrate, nitrogen balance
- Oryza sativa L.
- water deficit