Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 157, Issue 1, pp 27–32 | Cite as

Within- and among-lake variation in shell morphology of the freshwater clam Elliptio complanata (Bivalvia: Unionidae) from south-central Ontario lakes

  • Scott G. Hinch
  • Robert C. Bailey
Article

Abstract

To compare the relative magnitude of variation in shell morphology within and among lakes, Elliptio complanata were collected from low and high exposure areas in each of four small lakes in south-central Ontario. Nested ANOVA's on shell length, height, width and weight revealed that shell morphology varied much more between sites of differing exposure within a lake than among lakes of differing alkalinity. Canonical variates analysis showed that clams from high exposure areas had larger and proportionately taller and heavier shells than those from low exposure areas. There was no relationship between alkalinity of lakes and shell morphology. These results suggest that the use of unionid shell morphology to predict long-term whole lake water chemistry (e.g. alkalinity) requires sampling designs which take into account within-lake variation in shell morphology.

Key words

shell morphology alkalinity canonical variates analysis Elliptio complanata Unionidae 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altman, D. G., 1978. Plotting probability ellipses. Appl. Statistics 27: 347–349.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, C. J. D., C. Clark & B. Gleissner, 1938. The size of certain naiades from western Lake Erie in relation to shoal exposure. Am. Midl. Nat. 19: 682–701.Google Scholar
  3. Clarke, A. H., 1973. The freshwater molluscs of the Canadian interior basin. Malacologia 13: 1–509.Google Scholar
  4. Coker, R. E., A. F. Shira, H. W. Clark & A. D. Howard. 1921. Natural history and propagation of freshwater mussels. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish. 37: 77–181.Google Scholar
  5. Eager, R. M. C., 1978. Shape and function of the shell. A comparison of some living and fossil bivalve molluscs. Biol. Rev. 53: 169–210.Google Scholar
  6. Ghent, A. W., R. Singer & L. Johnson-Singer, 1978. Depth distribution determined with SCUBA and associated studies of the freshwater unionid clams Elliptio complanata and Anodonta grandis in Lake Bernard, Ontario. Can. J. Zool. 56: 1654–1663.Google Scholar
  7. Green, R. H., 1972. Distribution and morphological variation of Lampsilis radiata (Pelecypoda, Unionidae) in some central Canadian Lakes: a multivariate statistical approach. J. Fish. Res. Brd. Can. 29: 1565–1570.Google Scholar
  8. Green, R. H., 1980. Role of a unionid clam population in the calcium budget of a small arctic lake. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37: 219–224.Google Scholar
  9. Hinch, S. G., R. C. Bailey & R. H. Green, 1986. Growth of Lampsilis radiata (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in sand and mud: a reciprocal transplant experiment. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43: 548–552.Google Scholar
  10. Mackie, G. L. & L. A. Flippance, 1983. Relationships between buffering capacity of water and the size and calcium content of freshwater mollusks. Freshwat. Invert. Biol. 2: 48–55.Google Scholar
  11. Reyment, R. A., R. E. Blackith & N. A. Campbell, 1984. Multivariate morphometrics (2nd edition). Academic Press. New York, 233 pp.Google Scholar
  12. SAS Institute Inc. SAS user's Guide: 1982 Statistics. Cary, N. C.: SAS Institute Inc., 584 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Singer, R., 1981. Notes on the use of shells of Anodonta grandis Say (Bivalvia; Unionidae) as a paleoecological indicator of trophic status and pH p. 103–111. In R. Singer [ed.] Effects of Acidic Precipitation on Benthos. Proc. Symp. Acidic Precipitation on Benthos, 1980, North American Benthological Society, Hamilton, NY.Google Scholar
  14. Stansbery, D. H., 1961. The naiades (Mollusca, Pelecypoda) of Fishery Bay, South Bass Island, Lake Erie. Sterkiana 5: 1–37.Google Scholar
  15. Tevesz, M. J. S. & J. G. Carter, 1980. Environmental relationships of shell form and structure of unionacean bivalves, p. 295–318. In D. C. Rhodas & R. A. Lutz [ed.] Skeletal growth of aquatic organisms: biological records of environmetnal change. Plenum Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  16. van der Schalie, H. & A. van der Schalie, 1950. The mussles of the Mississippi River. Am. Midl. Nat. 44: 448–466.Google Scholar
  17. Wilson, C. B. & H. W. Clark, 1914. The mussels of the Cumberland River and its tributaries. US Bur. Fish. Doc. 781: 1–63.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott G. Hinch
    • 1
  • Robert C. Bailey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations