Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 103–123 | Cite as

Toxic soles, Pardachirus marmoratus from the Red Sea and P. pavoninus from Japan, with notes on other species

  • Eugenie Clark
  • Anita George


Fishes of the genus Pardachirus (Soleidae) are reviewed. Four species are recognized and their distribution mapped: P. marmoratus (Lacépède) from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, P. pavoninus (Lapédè) and P. poropterus (Bleeker) from the Indo-Pacific, and P. hedleyi (Ogilby) from estuarine waters of Australia. Achirus rautheri Chabanaud is placed in synonymy with P. hedleyi. The ichthyocrinotoxic effect on teleosts of the secretion from P. pavoninus is described and compared with that of P. marmoratus. The distribution of poison glands in these two species shows more glands present on the eyed side. The number of glands range from 212 to 235 in P. marmoratus and 204 to 237 in P. pavoninus and number of rays on fins associated with the poison glands are about the same for both species. P. marmoratus appears to be more toxic than P. pavoninus.


Poison glands Shark repellant Moses sole Soleidae Distribution Taxonomy Ichthyocrinotoxin Flatfishes 


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Copyright information

© Dr. W. Junk bv Publishers 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugenie Clark
    • 1
  • Anita George
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

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