Occurrence of Prorocentrum lima, a DSP toxin-producing species from the Atlantic coast of Canada

Abstract

A species of Prorocentrum (Dinophyta, Prorocentrales), isolated from a phytoplankton net sample from the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, has been brought into unialgal culture. The sample was collected at an aquaculture site immediately following an incident of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) due to the consumption of contaminated mussels. This clonal isolate has been identified as P. lima, based on its morphological characteristics. Analysis of the culture extract, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, indicated the presence of the DSP toxins, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Cembella AD (1989) Occurrence of okadaic acid, a major diarrheic shellfish toxin, in natural populations of Dinophysis spp. from the eastern coast of North America. J. appl. Phycol. 1: 307–310.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Dickey RW, Bobzin SC, Faulkner DJ, Benesath FA, Andrzehewski D (1990) Identification of okadaic acid from a Caribbean dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum concavum. Toxicon 28: 371–378.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Dodge JD (1975) The Prorocentrales (Dinophyceae) II. Revision of the taxonomy within the genus Prorocentrum. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 103–125.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Dodge JD (1982) Marine Dinoflagellates of the British Isles. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. London, 301.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Dodge JD, Bibby BT (1973) The Prorocentrales (Dinophyceae) I. A comparative account of fine structure in the genera Prorocentrum and Exuviaella. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 67: 175–187.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Faust MA (1990) Morphologic details of six benthic species of Prorocentrum (Pyrrophyta) from a mangrove island, Twin Cays, Belize, including two new species. J. Phycol. 26: 548–558.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Fukuyo Y (1981) Taxonomical study on benthic dinoflagellates collected in coral reefs. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 47: 967–978.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Haamer J, Andersson P-O, Lange S, Li XP., Edebo L (1990) Effects of transplantation and reimmersion of mussels Mytilus edulis Linneaus, 1728, on their contents of okadaic acid. J. Shellfish Res. 9: 109–112.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Lee JS, Igarashi T, Fraga S, Dahl E, Hovgaard P, Yasumoto T (1989) Determination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in various dinoflagellate species. J. appl. Phycol. 1: 147–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Lee JS, Yanagi T, Kenma R, Yasumoto T (1987) Fluorometric determination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Agric. biol. Chem. 51: 877–881.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. McLachlan J (1973) Growth media — marine. In Stein, JR (ed.), Handbook of Phycological Methods, Vol. I. Cultivation Methods and Growth Measurements, Cambridge University Press, London, 25–51.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Pleasance S, deFreitas ASW, Fritz L, Quilliam MA, Wright JLC, Hu T, Marr JC (1990a) Monitoring DSP toxin profiles of cultured dinoflagellates by LC-MS using a SCIEX API III mass spectrometer. In: Gordon DC Jr (ed.), Proceedings of the Second Canadian Workshop on Harmful Marine Algae. Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, October 2–4, 1990. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. No. 1799, 16–18.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Pleasance S, Quilliam MA, deFreitas ASW, Marr JC, Cembella AD (1990b) Ion-spray mass spectrometry of marine toxins II. Analysis of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in plankton by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rap. Comm. Mass Spectrom. 4: 206–213.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Quilliam MA, Gilgan MW, Pleassance S, deFreitas ASW, Douglas D, Fritz L, Hu T, Marr JC, Smyth C, Wright JLC (1990) Confirmation of an incident of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in eastern Canada. In: Gordon DC Jr (ed.), Proceedings of the Second Canadian Workshop on Harmful Marine Algae. Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmuth, NS, October 2–4, 1990. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. No. 1799, 18–22.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Schnepf E, Elbrächter M (1988) Cryptophycean-like double membrane-bound chloroplast in the dinoflagellate Dinophysis Ehrenb.: Evolutionary, phylogenetic and toxicological implications. Bot. Acta 101: 196–203.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Shumway SE (1990) A review of the effects of algal blooms on shellfish and aquaculture. J. World Aquaculture Soc. 21: 65–104.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Yasumoto T. (1985) Recent progress in the chemistry of dinoflagellate toxins. In: Anderson DM, White AW, Baden DG (eds), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York, 259–270.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Yasumoto T, Seino N, Yasutaka M, Murata M (1987) Toxins produced by benthic dinoflagellates. Biol. Bull. 173: 128–131.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Marr, J.C., Jackson, A.E. & McLachlan, J.L. Occurrence of Prorocentrum lima, a DSP toxin-producing species from the Atlantic coast of Canada. J Appl Phycol 4, 17–24 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00003956

Download citation

Key words

  • diarrhetic shellfish poisoning
  • DSP
  • dinoflagellate
  • Prorocentrum lima
  • okadaic acid
  • dinophysistoxin-1