Prevalence of, and antigenic variation in, serotype G10 rotaviruses and detection of serotype G3 strains in diarrheic calves: Implications for the origin of G10P11 or P11 type reassortant asymptomatic strains in newborn children in India
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Previous studies have shown predominant association of G10P11 type bovine rotavirus-derived reassortant strains with asymptomatic infections in newborn children in India. To understand the epidemiological and genetic basis for the origin of these strains in humans, the relative frequencies of different serotypes among bovine rotaviruses (BRVs) isolated from southern, western and central regions of the country were determined by subgroup and serotype analysis as well as nucleotide (nt) sequence analysis of the genes encoding the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7. Since the human G10P11 asymptomatic neonatal strain I321 possessed NSP1 from a human rotavirus, to determine its genetic origin in the bovine strains, comparative analysis of partial gene sequences from representative G10P11 strains was also carried out. The following observations were of great epidemiological significance, (i) G10P11 strains predominated in all the three regions with frequencies ranging between 55.6% and 85.2%. In contrast to the high prevalence of G6 strains in other countries, only one G6 strain was detected in this study and G8 strains represented 5.8% of the isolates, (ii) among the G10 strains, in serotyping ELISA, four patterns of reactivity were observed that appeared to correlate with the differences in electropherotypic patterns and amino acid (aa) sequence of the VP7, (iii) surprisingly, strains belonging to serotype G3 were detected more frequently (10.7%) than those of serotypes G6 and G8 combined, while strains representing the new serotype (G15) were observed in a single farm in Bangalore, and (iv) about 3.9% of the isolates were nontypeable as they exhibited high cross-reactivity to the serotyping MAbs used in the study. Comparative analysis of the VP7 gene sequence from the prototype G3 MAb-reactive bovine strain J63 revealed greatest sequence relatedness (87.6% nt and 96.0% aa) with that of serotype G3 rhesus-monkey strain RRV. It also exhibited high sequence homology with the VP7 from several animal and animal rotavirus-related human G3 strains (Simian SA11; equine ERV316 and FI-14; canine CU-1 and K9; porcine 4F; Feline Cat2 and human HCR3, YO and AU1). Partial nucleotide sequence analysis of the NSP1 gene of J63 showed greatest nt sequence homology (95.9%) to the NSP1 gene allele of the Indian G8 strain, isolated from a diarrheic child, which is likely to have been transmitted directly from cattle and 92.6% homology to that of the bovine G8 strain A5-10 suggesting the likely origin of J63 by gene reassortment between a bovine G8 strain and a G3 animal strain. Prevalence of G10P11 strains in cattle and G10P11 or P11 type reassortant strains in asymptomatic neonates as well as detection of G8P strains in diarrheic children support our hypothesis for bidirectional transmission of rotaviruses between humans and cattle and origin of novel strains catalyzed by the age-old traditions and socio-economic conditions in India.
KeywordsNSP1 Gene Outer Capsid Protein Bovine Strain G10P11 Strain Reassortant Strain
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