Kinematic Analysis for Design of the Transportation Part of a Tractor-Mounted Chinese Cabbage Collector

  • Mohammod Ali
  • Ye-Seul Lee
  • Md Shaha Nur Kabir
  • Tae-Kyung Kang
  • Sang-Hee Lee
  • Sun-Ok ChungEmail author
Original Article



A tractor-mounted cabbage collection system is under development to improve the mechanization rate of dryland crop production. The design of the cabbage-transportation part of a tractor-mounted Chinese cabbage collector is crucial for minimizing cabbage losses and for effective operation. Investigation of the effects of design parameters is useful to provide guidelines to fabricate the mechanism efficiently. Therefore, the present study aimed to conduct kinematic analysis of the cabbage-transportation part for optimum design of the Chinese cabbage collector.


The conceptual design of the Chinese cabbage collector mainly consists of the cabbage transportation, packaging, and unloading parts. Kinematic analysis of the cabbage-transportation part was conducted to investigate the effects of link lengths on the position, velocity, and acceleration of the mechanism. The performance of the cabbage-transportation part was simulated using a commercial software. The simulations were carried out using several cabbage sizes, cabbage transfer speeds, and link sizes at different locations on the cabbage-transportation part. The kinematic modeling and analytical procedure of the cabbage-transportation part were analyzed using mathematical models.


The successful transfer of cabbage through the conveyor belt was influenced by the width of the cabbage-transportation part, cabbage size, and feeding speed. Consequently, some combinations of link lengths were not acceptable to convey the cabbages with the increase in the width of the transportation part. On the contrary, interferences between the links occurred with the decrease in the width of the transportation part. The simulated results showed that greater transferring speeds of cabbage increased the kinematic values, causing damage to the cabbages. The recommended and effective cabbage transferring speed, the length of the link, and the width of the transportation part were found to be 0.2 m/s, 190 to 200 mm, and 500 to 600 mm, respectively.


This study is useful for the design of an efficient cabbage-transportation part, and suitable improvements to the fabrication of the Chinese cabbage collector prototype.


Agricultural machinery Dryland crop Chinese cabbage Cabbage collector Kinematic analysis 


Funding Information

This work was conducted with the support of the “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ0128532019)”, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.


  1. Ata, A. A., Haraz, E. H., Rizk, A. E. A., & Hanna, S. N. (2012). Kinematic analysis of a single link flexible manipulator. In 2012 IEEE international conference on industrial technology (pp. 852–857). Athens, Greece: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Retrieved from. Scholar
  2. Choi, J. H. (2012). Development of excavator simulation model using ADAMS/AMESim program. In Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference (pp. 35-36). (In Korean). Retrieved from Accessed 23 Oct 2019
  3. Choi, S. H., Kim, H. J., Ahn, S. H., Hong, S. H., Chai, M. J., Kwon, O. E., Kim, S. C., Kim, Y. J., Choi, C. H., & Kim, H. S. (2013). Modeling and simulation for a tractor equipped with hydro-mechanical transmission. Journal of Biosystems Engineering, 38(3), 171–179. 10.5.307/JBE.2013.38.3.171.Google Scholar
  4. Dongdong, D., Jun, W., & Shanshan, Q. (2014). Optimization of cutting position and mode for cabbage harvesting. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 30(12), 34–40. Scholar
  5. Dongdong, D., Guoqiang, F., Jun, W., Jiangjun, H., & Xinrong, Y. (2015). Development and experiment of self-propelled cabbage harvester. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 31(14), 16–23. Scholar
  6. Du, D., Xie, L., Wang, J., & Deng, F. (2016). Development and tests of a self-propelled cabbage harvester in China. In Proceeding of ASABE Annual International Meeting (paper no. 162459786). St. Joseph. Michigan, USA. Scholar
  7. Hachiya, M., Amano, T., Yamagata, M., & Kojima, M. (2004). Development and utilization of a new mechanized cabbage harvesting system for large fields. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 38(2), 97–103. Scholar
  8. Han, K. H., Lee, J. M., & Song, B. (2014). Design of lateral controller for autonomous guidance of a farm tractor in field operation. Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, 38(5), 551–557. Scholar
  9. Hong, J. T., Choi, Y., Sung, J.H., Kim, Y. K., & Lee, K. M. (2001). Design factors for Chinese cabbage harvester attached to tractors. Journal of Biosystems Engineering, 26(4), 337-354. (in Korean, with English abstract).Google Scholar
  10. Hong, S., Yun, Y., Won, D., & Lee, K. (2015). Analysis of patent and technology used for harvester of upland crops. In Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery / Korean society for bio-environment control (pp. 135–136) Retrieved from Accessed 23 Oct 2019
  11. Hong, C. C., Chang, C. L., & Lin, C. Y. (2016). Static structural analysis of great five-axis turningateral controller for autonomoEngineering. Science and Technology, an International Journal, 19(4), 1971–1984. Scholar
  12. Hroncova, D., Frankovský, P., Virgala, I., & Delyová, I. (2014). Kinematic analysis of the press mechanism using MSC Adams. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2(7), 312–315. Scholar
  13. Jang, D. J., Chung, K. R., Yang, H. J., Kang, S. K., & Kwona, D. Y. (2015). Discussion on the origin of kimchi, representative of Korean unique fermented vegetables. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 2(3), 126–136. Scholar
  14. Kanamitsu, M., Yamamoto, K., Shibano, Y., & Kaneko, K. (1994). Development of Chinese cabbage harvester (part 3). The Journal of the Agricultural Machinery Society, 56(2), 127–133. Scholar
  15. Kim, D. H., Choi, C. H., & Kim, Y. J. (2018a). Analysis of driving performance evaluation for an unmanned tractor. International Federation of Automatic Control, 51(17), 227–231. Scholar
  16. Kim, Y. S., Lee, S. D., Kim, Y. J., Kim, Y. J., & Choi, C. H. (2018b). Effect of tractor travelling speed on a tire slip. Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, 45(1), 120–127. Scholar
  17. KOSIS. (2017). Vegetable production (leafy and stem vegetables). In Korean statistical information service. Daejeon: Republic of Korea Accessed 23 Oct 2019
  18. Lee, K.-H., Kuack, H. S., Jung, J. W., Lee, E. J., Jeong, D. M., Kang, K. Y., Chae, K. I., Yun, S. H., Jang, M. R., Cho, S. D., Kim, G. H., & Oh, J. Y. (2013). Comparison of the quality characteristics between spring cultivars of kimchi cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 20(2), 182–190. (In Korean with English abstract). Scholar
  19. Lee, Y. S., Jang, B. E., Kim, Y. J., Chung, S. O., Choi, Y. S., & Ji, K. B. (2018). Structural analysis of the transportation and the power transmission parts for design of a self-propelled and small sized Chinese cabbage harvester. In Proceeding of ASABE Annual International Meeting (paper no.1800434). Michigan, USA: St. Joseph. Scholar
  20. Niezgoda, T., Krason, W., & Stankiewicz, M. (2012). Simulations of motion of prototype railway wagon with rotatable loading floor carried out in MSC Adams software. Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, 19(4), 495–502 Available at: Accessed 23 Oct 2019
  21. Park, S. J., Yang, K. W., Kim, G. S., Cho, S. Y., Lee, J. H., & Kim, H. J. (2017). Developed small-scale Chinese cabbage harvester. In Proceeding of the KSAM and ARCs 2017 Autumn Conference, 22 (2), 99–99 (In Korea). Retrieved from Accessed 23 Oct 2019
  22. Park, J., Choi, W., Kim, G., & Kim, J. (2018). Auto-dump design of postharvest bulk handling machinery system for onions. Journal of Biosystems Engineering, 43(4), 379–385. Scholar
  23. Saul, K. R., Hu, X., Goehler, C. M., Vidt, M. E., Daly, M., Velisar, A., & Murray, W. M. (2015). Benchmarking of dynamic simulation predictions in two software platforms using an upper limb musculoskeletal model. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 18(13), 1445–1458. Scholar
  24. Song, K. S., Hwang, H., & Hong, J. T. (2000). Automatic cabbage feeding, piling, and unloading system for tractor implemented Chinese cabbage harvester. In Proceeding of the 2 ndIFAC/CIGR International Workshop on Bio-Robotics, Information Technology and Intelligent Control for Bio-production Systems (BIO-ROBOTICS II), 33(29), 259–263, Sakai, Osaka, Japan, 25–26 November 2000. Retrieved from Scholar
  25. Vavro Jr., J., Vavro, J., Kovacikova, P., & Bezdedova, R. (2017). Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planar mechanisms by means of the SolidWorks software. Procedia Engineering, 177, 476–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yu, S.-C., Shin, S. Y., Kang, C. H., Kim, B. G., & Kim, J. O. (2015). Current status of agricultural mechanization in South Korea. In: Proceeding of ASABE Annual International Meeting (paper no. 152189653). St. Joseph. Michigan, USA. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© The Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammod Ali
    • 1
  • Ye-Seul Lee
    • 2
  • Md Shaha Nur Kabir
    • 1
    • 3
  • Tae-Kyung Kang
    • 2
  • Sang-Hee Lee
    • 2
  • Sun-Ok Chung
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biosystems Machinery EngineeringChungnam National UniversityDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development AdministrationJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural and Industrial EngineeringHajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology UniversityDinajpurBangladesh

Personalised recommendations