3D-Printed Scaffolds with Reinforced Poly (Lactic Acid)/Carbon Nanotube Filaments Based on Melt Extrusion
- 3 Downloads
Personalized medicine suitable for individual patients in tissue engineering is a significant challenge. Owing to the recent growth of 3D printing, various methods of building objects have been proposed. However, there is very little information about the mechanical properties of the pieces obtained by controlling the process variables using composite filaments. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology was used to fabricate new scaffolds with infill patterns, interconnected channel networks, controllable porosity, and size. Polylactic acid (PLA)/carbon nanotube (CNT) filaments were synthesized using the melt extrusion technique. An improvement in the mechanical properties was observed in composites compared with the pure polymer. Moreover, no toxicity was expressed by stem cells after 24 h of incubation in the presence of composite filaments for a high CNT concentration. Our results will aid in the scaffold design of composite filaments through the modeling of process parameters and mechanical properties.
KeywordsPolylactic acid Melt extrusion Mechanical properties 3D printing
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education (No. 2018R1A6A1A03025582) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2016R1D1 A3B03932921).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All protocols for human tissue processing were developed in accordance with the legal regulatory guidelines for human tissues and organs in the experimental protocol approved by the Seoul National University (Seoul, South Korea) Institutional Review Board (IRB No. CRI05008)
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- F. Asghari., Samiei, M., Adibkia, K., Akbarzadeh., A. and Davaran, S. 2017. Biodegradable and biocompatible polymers for tissue engineering application: a review. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology 45:185–192. doi: https://doi.org/10.3109/21691401.2016.1146731.
- Bacakova, L., Novotná, K., & Parizek, M. (2014). Polysaccharides as cell carriers for tissue engineering: the use of cellulose in vascular wall reconstruction. Physiological Research, 63, S29–S47 PMID: 24564664 (DOI not available).Google Scholar
- De la Paz Orozco, A., Vega, F. J., Martel-Estrada, S., Aguilar, A. H., Mendoza-Duarte, M., Chavarría-Gaytán, M., et al. (2016). Development of chitosan/poly (L-lactide)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine, 5, 14–23. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojrm.2016.51002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fernández-Tresguerres, I., Hernández-Gil, I., Alobera Gracia, M. A., Canto Pingarrón, M. D., & Blanco Jerez, L. (2006). Bases fisiológicas de la regeneración ósea II: El proceso de remodelado. Medicina Oral, Patología Oraly Cirugía Bucal (Internet), 11(DOI not available), 151–157.Google Scholar
- Gregor, A., Filová, E., Novák, M., Kronek, J., Chlup, H., Buzgo, M., Blahnová, V., Lukášová, V., Bartoš, M., Nečas, A., & Hošek, J. (2017). Designing of PLA scaffolds for bone tissue replacement fabricated by ordinary commercial 3D printer. Journal of Biological Engineering, 11, 31–51. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13036-017-0074-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gupta, B., Revagade, N., & Hilborn, J. (2007). Poly (lactic acid) fiber: an overview. Progress in Polymer Science, 32, 455–482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2007.01.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kim, J.-W., Kotagiri, N., Kim, J.-H., & Deaton, R. (2006). In situ fluorescence microscopy visualization and characterization of nanometer-scale carbon nanotubes labeled with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid, succinimidyl ester. Applied Physics Letters, 88, 213110. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2206875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kim, J., Kim, S. W., Choi, S. J., Lim, K. T., Lee, J. B., Seonwoo, H., Choung, P. H., Park, K., Cho, C. S., Choung, Y. H., & Chung, J. H. (2011). A healing method of tympanic membrane perforations using three-dimensional porous chitosan scaffolds. Tissue Engineering Parts A, 17, 2763–2772. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEA.2010.0533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kim, H.-B., Seo, Y.-R., Chang, K.-J., Park, S.-B., Seonwoo, H., Kim, J. W., et al. (2017). Mechanical and biological characteristics of reinforced 3D printing filament composites with agricultural by-product. Food Engineering Progress., 21, 233–241. https://doi.org/10.13050/foodengprog.2017.21.3.233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lim, K.-T., Jin, H., Seonwoo, H., Kim, H.-B., Kim, J., Kim, J.-W., Renji, C., Choung, P. H., & Chung, J. H. (2016). Physical stimulation-based osteogenesis: effect of secretion in vitro on fluid dynamic shear stress of human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells. IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience, 15, 881–890. https://doi.org/10.1109/TNB.2016.2627053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McCullen, S. D., Stevens, D. R., Roberts, W. A., Clarke, L. I., Bernacki, S. H., Gorga, R. E., et al. (2007). Characterization of electrospun nanocomposite scaffolds and biocompatibility with adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 2, 253–263 PMCID: PMC2673972 (DOI not available).Google Scholar