Advertisement

Journal of Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 1–11 | Cite as

Nozzle Pressure Response Characteristics of Variable Rate System for Unmanned Aerial Applications

  • Youngmo KooEmail author
Original Article
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

As interest in the variable rate application (VRA) increases, it is necessary to study the characteristics of the nozzle pressure applied for unmanned aerial applications. In this study, therefore, we analyzed the performance of nozzle pressure responses to the ground velocity in an unmanned rotorcraft test bed. Then, the responses using air chamber and Kalman filter were compared for reducing the pulsation and time delay.

Methods

For the VRA system test, an unmanned agricultural rotorcraft with a commercial controller was used as a test bed for the VRA of the aerial pesticide application. The VRA system responses with air chamber and Kalman filter were measured when the system was switched on and off during flight maneuvers. Then, the lag time and pulsation were determined.

Results

Pulsation of nozzle pressure has been conventionally relieved using an air chamber, but the response of the nozzle pressure is delayed by 2.6–3.8 s. This delay could lead to a significant error in the application rate and uniformity in the case of high spraying speeds. Therefore, the air chamber method was excluded from the use in variable control applications. As an alternative, the pressure response was gently induced by employing the Kalman filter in the control S/W. The optimal covariances of the Kalman filter were found to be R = 100 and Q = 1, and the response time of the nozzle pressure was estimated to be less than 0.1 s.

Conclusions

To alleviate the time lag and pulsation of nozzle pressure, it was necessary to reduce the variation of the pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage relative to the ground velocity. The VRA system with Kalman filter would be implemented in unmanned rotorcraft for aerial application purpose. Consequently, the adaptation of Kalman filter technology enables to improve spray uniformity along the flight trajectory.

Keywords

Variable rate application Unmanned aerial application Nozzle pressure Time lag Kalman filter 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study is the production technology project of IPET (Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forest) funded by MAFRA (Ministry of Agriculture, Food Rural Affairs).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict interest.

References

  1. Chung, C. J. (2015). Agricultural machinery engineering, 3rd edn. Seoul, Rep. Korea: Hyang-moon Pub. Co..Google Scholar
  2. Huang, Y., Hoffmann, W. C., Lan, Y., Wu, W., & Fritz, B. K. (2009). Development of a spray system for an unmanned aerial vehicle platform. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 25(6), 803–809.  https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.29229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kim, S. P. (2010). Understanding of Kalman filter using Matlab. Seoul, Rep. Korea: A-Jin Pub..Google Scholar
  4. Koo, Y. M. (2014a). Development of a stabi-barless agricultural unmanned helicopter for uniform spray application on the small-scaled fields. Report No. 11–1543–589-01. Seoul, Rep. Korea: MAFRA.Google Scholar
  5. Koo, Y. M. (2014b). Adaptability evaluation of attitude control for agricultural helicopter using a commercial controller (I)-comparison of the state variables for manual and autopilot. Journal of Agriculture & Life Science, 48(5), 157–169 (In Korean with English abstract).  https://doi.org/10.14397/jals.2014.48.5.157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Koo, Y. M. (2016). Feasibility of variable rate application to the ground speed variation of an agricultural helicopter. Journal of Agriculture & Life Science, 50(6), 191–204 (In Korean with English abstract).  https://doi.org/10.14397/jals.2016.50.6.191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Koo, Y. M., & Jung, J. E. (1998). Development of a flow compensating boom sprayer. Journal of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery, 23(3), 211–218 (In Korean with English abstract).Google Scholar
  8. Koo, Y. M., & Park, H. J. (2015). Development of a variable rate spray controller for an unmanned aerial application. Journal of Agriculture & Life Science, 49(4), 255–268 (In Korean with English abstract).  https://doi.org/10.14397/jals.2015.49.4.255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Koo, Y. M., & Seo, H. K. (2015). Error analysis of variable rate application using unmanned aerial spray system. Journal of Agriculture & Life Science, 49(4), 269–282 (In Korean with English abstract).  https://doi.org/10.14397/jals.2015.49.4.269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Koo, Y. M., & Womac, A. R. (2000). Development of a ground speed monitoring system for aerial application. Journal of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery, 25(3), 233–240 (In Korean with English abstract).Google Scholar
  11. Park, K. H. (Ed.). (2013). Unmanned helicopter farm engineering, Seoul, Rep. Korea: CIR.Google Scholar
  12. Park, H. J., & Koo, Y. M. (2012). Evaluation of spray flight attitude for agricultural roll-balanced helicopter using Kalman filter. Journal of Biosystems Engineering, 37(6), 342–351. (In Korean with English abstract).  https://doi.org/10.5307/jbe.2012.37.6.342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rojas, R. (2018) The Kalman filter. Available at robocup.mi.fu-berlin/bush/kalman.pdf (2018.12.28).

Copyright information

© The Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Agricultural Civil and Bio-industrial EngineeringKyungpook National UniversityDaeguRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations