A Compensation Method of Dead-Time and Forward Voltage Drop for Inverter Operating at Low Frequency

  • Lingyun Zhao
  • Wenxiang SongEmail author
  • Jiuyi Feng
Original Article


The dead-time is introduced to prevent the upper and lower power devices of the same leg from conducting simultaneously. However, it will cause the actual output voltage deviate from the desired voltage and the load current distortion will occur, which is especially unexpected when the inverter operates at a low frequency. In addition, a voltage drop is produced when the current flows through the power device, which further aggravates the current distortion. This paper presents a simple compensation strategy for the dead-time and the forward voltage drop. The current polarity is obtained accurately by filtering the three-phase currents in the synchronous rotating coordinate. The driving signals in the SVPWM is adjusted according to the current polarity to compensate the dead-time. The forward voltage drops are equivalent to an error voltage vector by using the approximate average threshold voltage and average differential resistance model, which is added to the given voltage to suppress the effects of the forward voltage drops. The compensation quantities are set to change based on a piece wise linear function to eliminate the occurrence of the current clamp and the instantaneous zero-crossing switch. Finally, the proposed compensation strategy is verified by the simulation and experiment.


Inverter Low frequency operation Dead-time Forward voltage drop Compensation 


  1. 1.
    Guerrero JM, Leetmaa M, Briz F et al (2005) Inverter nonlinearity effects in high-frequency signal-injection-based sensorless control methods. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 41(2):618–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Munoz AR, Lipo TA (1999) On-line dead time compensation technique for open-loop PWM-VSI drives. IEEE Trans Power Electron 14(4):683–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Park C-S, Jung T-U (2018) Online dead time effect compensation algorithm of PWM inverter for motor drive using PR controller. J Electr Eng Technol 12(3):1137–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang D, Peng F, Ye J et al (2018) Dead-time effect analysis of a three-phase dual-active bridge DC/DC converter. IET Power Electron 11(6):984–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee B, Kim J, Nam K (2012) Simple on-line dead-time compensation scheme based on disturbance voltage observer. In: 2012 IEEE energy conversion congress and exposition (ECCE), Raleigh, NC, pp 1857–1863Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim D-Y, Won I-K, Lee J-H et al (2017) Efficiency improvement of synchronous boost converter with dead time control for fuel cell-battery hybrid system. J Electr Eng Technol 12(5):1891–1901Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pellegrino G, Bojoi RI, Guglielmi P et al (2010) Accurate inverter error compensation and related self-commissioning scheme in sensorless induction motor drives. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 46(5):1970–1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guha A, Narayanan G (2016) Small-signal stability analysis of an open-loop induction motor drive including the effect of inverter dead-time. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 52(1):242–253CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guha A, Narayanan G (2018) Impact of undercompensation and overcompensation of dead-time effect on small-signal stability of induction motor drive. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 54(6):6027–6041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Choi J-W, Sul S-K (1996) Inverter output voltage synthesis using novel dead time compensation. IEEE Trans Power Electron 11(2):221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang G, Yu Y, Yang R et al (2008) Dead-time compensation of space vector PWM inverter for induction motor. Proc CSEE 28(15):79–83 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kim H-S, Moon H-T, Youn M-J (2003) On-line dead-time compensation method using disturbance observer. IEEE Trans Power Electron 18(6):1336–1345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim T-H, Lee J-H, Won C-Y (2014) Design and control methods of bidirectional DC-DC converter for the optimal DC-link voltage of PMSM drive. J Electr Eng Technol 9(6):1944–1953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lin Y, Lai Y (2009) Dead-time elimination of PWM-controlled inverter/converter without separate power sources for current polarity detection circuit. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 56(6):2121–2127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Han K, Sun X, Liu B et al (2018) Dead-time on-line compensation scheme of SVPWM for permanent magnet synchronous motor drive system with vector control. Proc CSEE 38(2):620–627+692 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Holtz J, Quan J (2002) Sensorless vector control of induction motors at very low speed using a nonlinear inverter model and parameter identification. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 38(4):1087–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee D-H, Ahn J-W (2014) A simple and direct dead-time effect compensation scheme in PWM-VSI. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 50(5):3017–3025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leggate D, Kerkman RJ (1997) Pulse-based dead-time compensator for PWM voltage inverters. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 44(2):191–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mora A, Juliet J, Santander A et al (2016) Dead-time and semiconductor voltage drop compensation for cascaded H-bridge converters. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 63(12):7833–7842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kang MC, Lee SH, Yoon YD (2016) Compensation for inverter nonlinearity considering voltage drops and switching delays of each leg’s switches. In: 2016 IEEE energy conversion congress and exposition (ECCE), pp 1–7Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Urasaki N, Senjyu T, Uezato K, Funabashi T (2005) An adaptive dead-time compensation strategy for voltage source inverter fed motor drives. IEEE Trans Power Electron 20(5):1150–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hoshino T, Itoh JI, Kaneko T (2007) Dead-time voltage error correction with parallel disturbance observers for high performance V/f control. In: 2007 IEEE Industry Applications Annual Meeting, pp 2038–2044Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Urasaki N, Senjyu T, Kinjo T et a1 Dead-time compensation strategy for permanent magnet synchronous motor drive taking zero current clamp and parasitic capacitor effects into account. In: IEEE IECON’, pp 2718–2723.ZGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang Z, Xu L (2014) Dead-time compensation of inverters considering snubber and parasitic capacitance. IEEE Trans Power Electron 29(6):3179–3187MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechatronic Engineering and AutomationShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations