Metronomic chemotherapy of carboplatin-loaded PEGylated MWCNTs: synthesis, characterization and in vitro toxicity in human breast cancer
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Our objective of this study is to design and develop a polyethylene glycol (PEG2000)-modified multiwall carbon nanotube (PEGylated MWCNT) formulation for oral controlled metronomic chemotherapeutic drug delivery. Multiwall carbon nanotubes undergo various chemical modifications including oxidation with strong acids, conjugation of polyethylene glycol, and coating with cellulose acetate phthalate which resulted in the formation of aqueous dispersion and prevention of drug degradation in acidic environment. Advanced analytical procedure such as Fourier transform infra-red, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering techniques were used to evaluate physicochemical characterization. We also performed in vitro cytotoxic study by MTT assay and results revealed that carboplatin-loaded PEGylated MWCNTs did not show significant detrimental effect on the viability of MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) cells. The maximum encapsulation and drug-loading capacity were determined to be 71.58 ± 0.04 and 39.62 ± 0.07%, respectively. The release of carboplatin from PEGylated MWCNTs was investigated at simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), pH 6.8, after optimizing at simulated gastric fluid (SGF), pH 1.2, by enteric coating. Enteric-coated PEGylated MWCNTs exhibit pH-responsive drug activity in a sustained manner especially at pH 6.8. This surface modification strongly suggests that PEGylated MWCNTs could be a potential carrier for metronomic chemotherapeutic agent for high drug resistance, drug with maximum adverse effect and poorly oral bioavailable drugs.
KeywordsMultiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) Cytotoxicity Metronomic chemotherapeutic Carboplatin (CP) MDA-MB-231 cell line In vitro release
The authors would like to acknowledge the Department of Science and Technology (DST-inspired), New Delhi (India), for funding this project.
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Conflict of interest
We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.
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