Advertisement

Chlorella-derived activated carbon with hierarchical pore structure for energy storage materials and adsorbents

  • Joah Han
  • Kyubock Lee
  • Min Sung Choi
  • Ho Seok Park
  • Woong Kim
  • Kwang Chul RohEmail author
Original Article
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

Chlorella-derived activated carbon (CDAC) with a high specific surface area and hierarchical pore structure was prepared as a CO2 adsorbent and as a supercapacitor electrode material. During KOH activation of Chlorella-derived carbon, metallic K gas penetrated from the outer walls to the inner cells, and pores formed on the outer frame and the inner surface. Micropores were dominant in CDAC, contributing toward a high specific surface area (> 3500 m2/g) and a hierarchical pore structure owing to the cell walls. Consequently, CDAC exhibited a high CO2 adsorption capacity (13.41 mmol/g at 10 atm and room temperature) and afforded high specific capacitance (142 F/g) and rate capability (retention ratio: 91.5%) in supercapacitors. Compared with woody- and herbaceous-biomass-derived activated carbons, CDAC has a superior specific surface area when the precursors are used without any pretreatment under the same conditions due to their soft components such as lipids and proteins. Furthermore, developing microalgae into high-value-added products is beneficial from both economic and environmental perspectives.

Keywords

Chlorella vulgaris Biomass Activated carbon CO2 adsorbent Energy storage material 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study received support from the “R&D Program for Forest Science Technology (Project No. 2017053B10-1919-BB02)” of Korea Forest Service (Korea Forestry Promotion Institute). This work was supported by the Industry Technology Development Program (10080540, Development of filmtype flexible supercapacitors with microstructured electrodes based on nanomaterials) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE, Korea).

References

  1. 1.
    Choi MS, Park S, Lee H, Park HS (2018) Hierarchically nanoporous carbons derived from empty fruit bunches for high performance supercapacitors. Carbon Lett 25:103–112Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gopiraman M, Saravanamoorthy S, Kim S-H, Chung I-M (2017) Interconnected meso/microporous carbon derived from pumpkin seeds as an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors. Carbon Lett 24:73–81Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khairnar V, Jaybhaye S, Hu C-C, Afre R, Soga T, Sharon M, Sharon M (2008) Development of supercapacitors using porous carbon materials synthesized from plant derived presursors. Carbon Lett 9:188–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abioye AM, Ani FN (2015) Recent development in the production of activated carbon electrodes from agricultural waste biomass for supercapacitors: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 52:1282–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wei L, Karahan HE, Zhai S, Yuan Y, Qian Q, Goh K, Ng AK, Chen Y (2016) Microbe-derived carbon materials for electrical energy storage and conversion. J Energy Chem 25:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Foley PM, Beach ES, Zimmerman JB (2011) Algae as a source of renewable chemicals: opportunities and challenges. Green Chem 13:1399–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wijffels RH, Barbosa MJ (2010) An outlook on microalgal biofuels. Science 329:796–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chang Y-M, Tsai W-T, Li M-H, Chang S-H (2015) Preparation and characterization of porous carbon material from post-extracted algal residue by a thermogravimetric system. Algal Res 9:8–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shen Q, Zhu J, Cheng L, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Xu X (2011) Enhanced algae removal by drinking water treatment of chlorination coupled with coagulation. Desalination 271:236–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chang Y-M, Tsai W-T, Li M-H (2015) Characterization of activated carbon prepared from chlorella-based algal residue. Bioresour Technol 184:344–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sevilla M, Falco C, Titirici M-M, Fuertes AB (2012) High-performance CO2 sorbents from algae. RSC Adv 2:12792–12797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhou M, Catanach J, Gomez J, Richins S, Deng S (2017) Effects of nanoporous carbon derived from microalgae and its CoO composite on capacitance. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:4362–4373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sevilla M, Gu W, Falco C, Titirici MM, Fuertes AB, Yushin G (2014) Hydrothermal synthesis of microalgae-derived microporous carbons for electrochemical capacitors. J Power Sources 267:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tian Z, Qiu Y, Zhou J, Zhao X, Cai J (2016) The direct carbonization of algae biomass to hierarchical porous carbons and CO2 adsorption properties. Mater Lett 180:162–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tian Z, Xiang M, Zhou J, Hu L, Cai J (2016) Nitrogen and oxygen-doped hierarchical porous carbons from algae biomass: direct carbonization and excellent electrochemical properties. Electrochim Acta 211:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yun Y-M, Shin H-S, Lee C-K, Oh Y-K, Kim H-W (2016) Inhibition of residual n-hexane in anaerobic digestion of lipid-extracted microalgal wastes and microbial community shift. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:7138–7145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jiang H-L, Liu B, Lan Y-Q, Kuratani K, Akita T, Shioyama H, Zong F, Xu Q (2011) From metal–organic framework to nanoporous carbon: toward a very high surface area and hydrogen uptake. J Am Chem Soc 133:11854–11857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee J, Kim J, Hyeon T (2006) Recent progress in the synthesis of porous carbon materials. Adv Mater 18:2073–2094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wei L, Sevilla M, Fuertes AB, Mokaya R, Yushin G (2012) Polypyrrole-derived activated carbons for high-performance electrical double-layer capacitors with ionic liquid electrolyte. Adv Funct Mater 22:827–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xia Y, Yang Z, Zhu Y (2013) Porous carbon-based materials for hydrogen storage: advancement and challenges. J Mater Chem A 1:9365–9381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yang SJ, Kim T, Im JH, Kim YS, Lee K, Jung H, Park CR (2012) MOF-derived hierarchically porous carbon with exceptional porosity and hydrogen storage capacity. Chem Mater 24:464–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zheng C, Zhou XF, Cao HL, Wang GH, Liu ZP (2014) Edge-enriched porous graphene nanoribbons for high energy density supercapacitors. J Mater Chem A 2:7484–7490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Manocha SM (2003) Porous carbons. Sadhana 28:335–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sevilla M, Fuertes AB (2011) Sustainable porous carbons with a superior performance for CO2 capture. Energy Environ Sci 4:1765–1771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang R, Wang P, Yan X, Lang J, Peng C, Xue Q (2012) Promising porous carbon derived from celtuce leaves with outstanding supercapacitance and CO2 capture performance. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 4:5800–5806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Safi C, Zebib B, Merah O, Pontalier P-Y, Vaca-Garcia C (2014) Morphology, composition, production, processing and applications of Chlorella vulgaris: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 35:265–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Henderson RK, Parsons SA, Jefferson B (2008) Successful removal of algae through the control of zeta potential. Sep Sci Technol 43:1653–1666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zou J, Dai Y, Wang X, Ren Z, Tian C, Pan K, Li S, Abuobeidah M, Fu H (2013) Structure and adsorption properties of sewage sludge-derived carbon with removal of inorganic impurities and high porosity. Bioresour Technol 142:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhu Y, Murali S, Stoller MD, Ganesh KJ, Cai W, Ferreira PJ, Pirkle A, Wallace RM, Cychosz KA, Thommes M, Su D, Stach EA, Ruoff RS (2011) Carbon-based supercapacitors produced by activation of graphene. Science 332:1537–1541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Han J, Kwon JH, Lee J-W, Lee JH, Roh KC (2017) An effective approach to preparing partially graphitic activated carbon derived from structurally separated pitch pine biomass. Carbon 118:431–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Xu F, Cai R, Zeng Q, Zou C, Wu D, Li F, Lu X, Liang Y, Fu R (2011) Fast ion transport and high capacitance of polystyrene-based hierarchical porous carbon electrode material for supercapacitors. J Mater Chem 21:1970–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Andersson OE, Prasad BLV, Sato H, Enoki T, Hishiyama Y, Kaburagi Y, Yoshikawa M, Bandow S (1998) Structure and electronic properties of graphite nanoparticles. Phys Rev B 58:16387–16395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jackson ST, Nuzzo RG (1995) Determining hybridization differences for amorphous carbon from the XPS C 1s envelope. Appl Surf Sci 90:195–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tai FC, Lee SC, Wei CH, Tyan SL (2006) Correlation between ID/IG ratio from visible Raman spectra and sp2/sp3 ratio from XPS spectra of annealed hydrogenated DLC film. Mater Trans 47:1847–1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kim S-I, Yamamoto T, Endo A, Ohmori T, Nakaiwa M (2006) Adsorption of phenol and reactive dyes from aqueous solution on carbon cryogel microspheres with controlled porous structure. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 96:191–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Saka C (2012) BET, TG–DTG, FT-IR, SEM, iodine number analysis and preparation of activated carbon from acorn shell by chemical activation with ZnCl2. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 95:21–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chmiola J, Yushin G, Gogotsi Y, Portet C, Simon P, Taberna PL (2006) Anomalous increase in carbon capacitance at pore sizes less than 1 nanometer. Science 313:1760–1763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang D-W, Li F, Liu M, Lu GQ, Cheng H-M (2008) 3D aperiodic hierarchical porous graphitic carbon material for high-rate electrochemical capacitive energy storage. Angew Chem Int Ed 47:373–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fan Z, Yan J, Wei T, Zhi L, Ning G, Li T, Wei F (2011) Asymmetric supercapacitors based on graphene/MnO2 and activated carbon nanofiber electrodes with high power and energy density. Adv Funct Mater 21:2366–2375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Largeot C, Portet C, Chmiola J, Taberna P-L, Gogotsi Y, Simon P (2008) Relation between the ion size and pore size for an electric double-layer capacitor. J Am Chem Soc 130:2730–2731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rodriguez-Martinez LM, Omar N (2017) Emerging nanotechnologies in rechargeable energy storage systems. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    An KH, Kim WS, Park YS, Moon J-M, Bae DJ, Lim SC, Lee YS, Lee YH (2001) Electrochemical properties of high-power supercapacitors using single-walled carbon nanotube electrodes. Adv Funct Mater 11:387–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bo Z, Zhu W, Ma W, Wen Z, Shuai Z, Chen J, Yan J, Wang Z, Cen K, Feng X (2013) Vertically oriented graphene bridging active-layer/current-collector interface for ultrahigh rate supercapacitors. Adv Mater 25:5799–5806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lee E, Kwon SH, Choi PR, Jung JC, Kim M-S (2015) Activated carbons prepared from mixtures of coal tar pitch and petroleum pitch and their electrochemical performance as electrode materials for electric double-layer capacitor. Carbon Lett 16:78–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lei Z, Christov N, Zhao XS (2011) Intercalation of mesoporous carbon spheres between reduced graphene oxide sheets for preparing high-rate supercapacitor electrodes. Energy Environ Sci 4:1866–1873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shaijumon MM, Ou FS, Ci L, Ajayan PM (2008) Synthesis of hybrid nanowire arrays and their application as high power supercapacitor electrodes. Chem Commun.  https://doi.org/10.1039/b800866c Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Madhu R, Sankar KV, Chen S-M, Selvan RK (2014) Eco-friendly synthesis of activated carbon from dead mango leaves for the ultrahigh sensitive detection of toxic heavy metal ions and energy storage applications. RSC Adv 4:1225–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Baudelet P-H, Ricochon G, Linder M, Muniglia L (2017) A new insight into cell walls of Chlorophyta. Algal Res 25:333–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Carbon Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joah Han
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kyubock Lee
    • 3
  • Min Sung Choi
    • 4
  • Ho Seok Park
    • 4
  • Woong Kim
    • 2
  • Kwang Chul Roh
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Energy and Environmental DivisionKorea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and TechnologyJinju-siRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringKorea UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Graduate School of Energy Science and TechnologyChungnam National UniversityDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.School of Chemical EngineeringSungkyunkwan UniversitySuwon-siRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations