Structural, chemical and electronic differences between bare and nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles

  • H. L. LeeEmail author
  • K. L. WoonEmail author
  • S. Tan
  • W. S. Wong
  • A. Ariffin
  • N. Chanlek
  • H. Nakajima
  • T. Saisopa
  • P. Songsiriritthigul
Original Article


Comparisons between bare carbon (CPs) and nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (N-CPs) synthesised using hydrothermal reaction are carried out. It was found that hydrothermal reaction of citric acid yields graphene-like sheets, while the nitrogen doping using ethylenediamine resulted in amorphous polymeric ball-like hydrocarbons devoid of any aromatic rings. Although the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicate the presence of carbon–carbon double bonds (C=C), and the ground states of both materials are very deep (> 7.8 eV) as measured by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. This indicates the conjugation is very short. This is supported by the fact that both materials are UV blue emitting peaking at 375 nm probably originating from C=C.


Carbon NMR Raman SEM Doping FTIR XRD 



The authors would like to thank the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Public Organization) for experiments at the beamline. This project is funded by Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) Malaysia, e-science (SF019-2014).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Korean Carbon Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. L. Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  • K. L. Woon
    • 2
    Email author
  • S. Tan
    • 1
  • W. S. Wong
    • 2
  • A. Ariffin
    • 3
  • N. Chanlek
    • 4
  • H. Nakajima
    • 4
  • T. Saisopa
    • 5
  • P. Songsiriritthigul
    • 5
  1. 1.Nanomaterials Research Group, School of Chemical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Low Dimensional Materials Research CentreUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Synchrotron Light Research InstituteNakhon RatchasimaThailand
  5. 5.NANOTEC-SUT Center of Excellence on Advanced Functional Nanomaterials and School of PhysicsSuranaree University of TechnologyNakhon RatchasimaThailand

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