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Microwave assisted biocidal extraction is an alternative method to measure microbial biomass of carbon from cultivated and non-cultivated soils

  • Janksyn Bertozzi
  • Diva S. AndradeEmail author
  • Cláudio C. Oliveira
  • Abdullahi Bala
  • João Henrique Caviglione
Environmental Microbiology - Research Paper
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

Developing simple and cost-effective methods for soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) measurement eases routine laboratory analysis and enables large numbers of soil samples to be measured in a relatively short period of time. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a microwave-assisted biocidal-extraction (MWE) method which does not employ CHCl3 as biocide and K2SO4 as C-extractor, to estimate MBC. First, the microorganisms of soil samples are killed using microwave (MW) irradiation at energy level of 800 J g−1 soil as biocide followed by microwave irradiation extraction (MWE) at 562 W (120 J g−1 soil for 1 min), using deionized water as solvent. Microbial biomass of carbon from two contrasting soils microwaved with 80, 100, and 140 J g−1 soil did not differ from those obtained by using the chloroform fumigation-extraction (CFE) method with 0.5 mol L−1 K2SO4 as extractant. To evaluate the robustness of the MWE method, twenty-six soil samples, from cultivated and non-cultivated areas, with clay contents from 70–690 g kg−1, organic carbon from 5.52 to 50.82 g C kg−1 and pH values from 3.9 to 6.8 were analyzed for MBC using MWE and CFE methods. There was a linear regression (MW = − 17.87 + 0.92*K2SO4; R2 = 0.705; p < 0.001) between MWE and CFE. The biocidal microwave-assisted extraction method using 120 J g−1 soil for 1 min is a cleaner method for evaluating MBC, because it does not require chloroform, potassium sulfate salt and takes a shorter time to extract a set of soil samples.

Keywords

Chloroform fumigation-extraction Extractable carbon Microwave extraction Microwave energy Soil microorganisms 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The first author acknowledges a scholarship from National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), PR, Brazil. This work was partially supported by the National Council for the Improvement of Higher Education (CAPES, 001). DSA is also research fellow of CNPq (312996/2017-9).

Author contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by Janksyn Bertozzi, Diva S. Andrade, and João Henrique Caviglione. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Janksyn Bertozzi, Cláudio C. Oliveira, and Diva S. Andrade and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR) campus LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Soil Science–PPG-Agricultura ConservacionistaInstituto Agronômico do Paraná (IAPAR)LondrinaBrazil
  3. 3.Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM)MaringáBrazil
  4. 4.Federal University of Technology, MinnaMinnaNigeria

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