In vitro anti-biofilm activity of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide from Andrographis paniculata against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is a biologically active molecule present in the extract of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh), a classic ethnic herbal formula, which has been used for over thousand years as therapeutics to treat numerous infectious diseases like upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and many more health issues. The present study is designed to ascertain an inhibitor against biofilm formation from the major metabolites of Andrographis paniculata, because the extract of this herb shows inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing (QS) communication and biofilm development against microorganisms. 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide at 0.1 mM (sub-MIC dose) with azithromycin (6 μg/mL, sub-MIC) or gentamicin (4 μg/mL, sub-MIC) synergistically inhibits 92% biofilm production by a 48-h treatment against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further investigation carried out by atomic force microscopy shows promising reduction in roughness and height of biofilm in the presence of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide compared with the control group. The content of extracellular polymeric substances, level of pyocyanin production, and synthesis of extracellular protease by P. aeruginosa have also been reduced significantly at around 90% in 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide-treated group. In conclusion, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide could be used as a drug molecule against biofilm development by inhibiting QS pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
KeywordsPseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum sensing (QS) pathway 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG) Biofilm QS inhibitor Antibiotic resistance
MM is thankful to the National Institute of Technology, Agartala, for providing PhD fellowship. The authors are grateful to the Central Research Facility (CRF), National Institute of Technology, Agartala, for providing atomic force microscopy (AFM) facility.
This work is supported by project grant (File Number: YSS/2015/001965) to DN ROY from Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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