Human bocavirus infections and co-infections with respiratory syncytial virus and Rotavirus in children with acute respiratory or gastrointestinal disease
The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and seasonal distributions of HBoV detections among Iranian children presenting with acute respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms and to compare infections among children with concomitant respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rotavirus (RV) infections. A cross-sectional study at Mofid Children’s Hospital in Tehran, Iran, enrolled children < 3 years old presenting with either acute respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms during the period of 2017–2018. Respiratory or stool specimens collected from each group were initially tested by RT-PCR assays for RSV and RV, respectively, and all specimens were tested for HBoV by PCR assay. Clinical and demographic data were collected and statistically compared. Five hundred respiratory and stool specimens each were tested and 67 (13.4%) and 72 (14.4%) were PCR positive for HBoV, respectively. Of 128 (25.6%) respiratory specimens positive for RSV, 65% were also positive for HBoV (p = 0.019); of 169 (33.8%) stool specimens positive for RV, 62.5% were also positive for HBoV (p = 0.023). Peak circulation of all viruses was during late winter and early spring months (Jan–Mar) in gastrointestinal infections and during winter (Feb–Jan) in respiratory infections. HBoV is commonly detected among Iranian children presenting with acute respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms and is often present as co-infections with RSV and RV, respectively.
KeywordsHuman bocavirus Acute respiratory infections Viral infections Co-infections Gastrointestinal infections
This study was financially supported by the Pediatric Infections Research Center (PIRC), Mofd Children’s Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
Compliance with ethical standards
Ethics approval and consent to participate
This study was approved by two ethical committees: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran, Pediatric Infections Research Center, Mofid Children’s Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Adult subjects or parents of the child subjects signed the consent form for participation in the study. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Pediatric Infections Research Center (PIRC) research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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