Pathological and virological features of skin lesions caused by BVDV in cattle
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Dermatitis might occur in mucosal disease (MD) caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). This study describes the pathological and virological features of skin lesions associated with BVDV infection in four persistently infected (PI) cattle. Skin samples were reprocessed for histopathology and IHC. BVDV isolates were obtained and were genetically characterized. In addition to upper alimentary system ulcerative lesions, all cattle (one outbreak and three individual cases) presented focal crusty and ulcerative lesions affecting the mucocutaneous and skin-horn junctions, interdigital clefts, pastern, and areas surrounding the dewclaws and diffuse thickened skin within 7–20 days of infection. Microscopic analysis revealed parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and single-cell keratinocyte death, accompanied by ballooning degeneration and spongiosis in the epidermis, as well as intraepithelial and subcorneal pustules. IHC showed BVDV antigen in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes undergoing individual cell death. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates from cattle #1, #2, and #4 belonged to BVDV-1a, whereas that from cattle #3 belonged to BVDV-1d. Cytopathic BVDV was isolated from cattle #2 and #3 (MD), and non-cytopathic BVDV was isolated from cattle #1 and #4. Thus, BVDV infection might cause acute disease, characterized by skin and upper alimentary system ulcerative lesions, in both MD and PI cattle.
KeywordsDermatitis Infectious diseases Mucosal disease Persistently infected Pestivirus
The authors are thankful to the technician of Cíntia de Lorenzo for performing the IHC of this study.
This work was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnólogico (CNPq) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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