The Co-inoculation of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium Increases the Early Nodulation and Development of Common Beans
It has recently been shown that the co-inoculation of Rhizobium tropici and Bradyrhizobium spp. can benefit the nodulation, development, and biological nitrogen fixation of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Here, we compared this type of co-inoculation with the co-inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense on two common bean cultivars and evaluated whether they can stimulate the early nodulation of this crop, aiming at anticipating the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to plant nutrition. The co-inoculation with B. elkanii 29w increased the number of nodules in the V3 and V4 stages. Both co-inoculations stimulated a larger mass of nodules and larger shoot biomass during the V4 stage. The co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium also stimulated root growth. The co-inoculation effects were consistent for the two tested cultivars, but some differences in response indicate a possible genotype effect. We can conclude that the co-inoculation of B. elkanii benefits the common bean during the early stages of its cycle. These effects are comparable with the effects of the co-inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense Sp 245.
KeywordsNodulation Phenological phase Mixed inoculation Strains Biomass
We thank the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and the Carlos Chagas Filho Foundation for the Support of Research in the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) for their financial support (projects 307872/2016-5 and E-26/202.683/2018, respectively); the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for the scholarship provided to Rita Hilário de Carvalho; and CNPq for the research fellowship provided to Ederson da Conceição Jesus (project 475168/2012-7). This work is also sponsored by the INCT—Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms for Agricultural Sustainability and Environmental Responsibility (CNPq, 465133/2014-4, Fundação Araucária-STI, CAPES).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Brito LF (2013) Iniciação da Nodulação em Cultivares de Feijoeiro. Dissertação (mestrado)–Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Curso de Pós-Graduação em Agronomia–Ciência do SoloGoogle Scholar
- Cassán F, Perrig D, Sgroy V et al (2009) Azospirillum brasilense Az39 and Bradyrhizobium japonicum E109, inoculated singly or in combination, promote seed germination and early seedling growth in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.). Eur J Soil Biol 45:28–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2008.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- De Mendiburu F (2019) Agricolae: statistical procedures for agricultural research. R Packag version 1Google Scholar
- Döbereiner J, Andrade V de O, Baldani VLD (1999) Protocolos para Preparo de Meios de Cultura da Embrapa Agrobiologia. Doc No110 38. https://doi.org/10.1177/002085235802400214
- Figueiredo MVB, Sobral JK, Stamford TLM, Araújo JM (2010) Bactérias promotoras do crescimento de plantas: estratégia para uma agricultura sustentável. Biotecnol Apl à Agric textos apoio e Protoc Exp Embrapa Agrobiol Brazil 387–414Google Scholar
- Hardarson G, Bliss FA, Cigales-Rivero MR, Henson RA, Kipe-Nolt JA, Longeri L, Manrique A, Pena-Cabriales JJ, Pereira PAA, Sanabria CA, Tsai SM (1993) Genotypic variation in biological nitrogen fixation by common bean. Enhanc Biol Nitrogen Fixat Common Bean Lat Am:59–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-2100-2_5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liao CFH (1981) Devarda’s alloy method for total nitrogen determination 1. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45:852. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1981.03615995004500050005x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R Foundation for Statistical Computing RC (2015) R: A language and environment for statistical computingGoogle Scholar
- Remans R, Ramaekers L, Schelkens S et al (2008) Effect of Rhizobium-Azospirillum coinoculation on nitrogen fixation and yield of two contrasting Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes cultivated across different environments in Cuba. Plant Soil 312:25–37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-008-9606-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar