Advertisement

Effects of Different Fertilization and Fallowing Practices on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in a Dryland Soil with Low Organic Matter

  • Xiang Zhang
  • Hui Wang
  • Xiaoli Hui
  • Zhaohui Wang
  • Jinshan LiuEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

Soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization plays an important role in crop growth and nutrition cycling. Based on a 10-year field experiment, an aerobic incubation experiment (105 days) was conducted to determine soil mineralized C and mineralized N at two depths (0–20 and 20–40 cm) under four cropping treatments (winter wheat with no fertilizer (Ctr), N fertilizer (N), phosphorus fertilizer (P), and N and P fertilizers (NP)) and two fallowing treatments (natural-F and bare-F). Results showed that compared with Ctr, N and NP significantly increased the wheat grain and straw yield. N, NP, and natural-F significantly increased the soil organic N concentration by 10.4%, 15.2%, and 22.0%, respectively, at 0–20-cm soil depth, and the natural-F significantly increased the soil organic C concentration by 16.8%. Additionally, bare-F led to lower soil organic N at the two soil depths and soil organic C at 0–20-cm depth when compared with NP and natural-F. The highest net mineralized N and C were observed in soils with the highest organic N and C contents (i.e., natural-F). Meanwhile, the lowest net mineralized N and C were observed in the treatments with the lowest soil organic N and C contents (i.e., bare-F). Therefore, in the Loess Plateau, the management of NP application is critical for increasing grain yield, maintaining soil C and N levels and supplying adequate N to the plants. By contrast, the application of N alone, P alone, or bare fallow is not a useful method for maintaining soil fertility.

Keywords

Wheat cultivation Mineralization Soil organic carbon Soil organic nitrogen Loess Plateau 

Notes

Funding Information

This research was supported jointly by grants from the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFD0200401), National Natural Science Foundation of China (41501308), Chinese National Key Technology R&D Program  (2015BAD23B04), and Chinese Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (201503124).

References

  1. Barré P, Eglin T, Christensen BT, Ciais P, Houot S, Kätterer T, Van Oort F, Peylin P, Poulton P, Romanenkov V (2010) Quantifying and isolating stable soil organic carbon using long-term bare fallow experiments. Biogeosciences 7:3839–3850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS (1982) Nitrogen-total. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis. Part, vol 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, pp 595–624Google Scholar
  3. Bundy L, Meisinger J (1994) Nitrogen availability indices. In: Weaver R, Angle S, Bottomley P, Bezdicek D, Smith S, Tabatabai A, Wollum A (eds) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Microbiological and biochemical properties. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 951–984Google Scholar
  4. Cheng W, Padre AT, Sato C, Shiono H, Hattori S, Kajihara A, Aoyama M, Tawaraya K, Kumagai K (2016) Changes in the soil C and N contents, C decomposition and N mineralization potentials in a rice paddy after long-term application of inorganic fertilizers and organic matter. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 62:212–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dai J, Wang Z, Li M, He G, Li Q, Cao H, Wang S, Gao Y, Hui X (2016) Winter wheat grain yield and summer nitrate leaching: long-term effects of nitrogen and phosphorus rates on the Loess Plateau of China. Field Crop Res 196:180–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dalal RC, Allen DE, Wang WJ, Reeves S, Gibson I (2011) Organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks in a Vertisol following 40 years of no-tillage, crop residue retention and nitrogen fertilisation. Soil Tillage Res 112:133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dimassi B, Cohan JP, Labreuche J, Mary B (2013) Changes in soil carbon and nitrogen following tillage conversion in a long-term experiment in Northern France. Agric Ecosyst Environ 169:12–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Franzluebbers K, Weaver R, Juo A, Franzluebbers A (1994) Carbon and nitrogen mineralization from cowpea plants part decomposing in moist and in repeatedly dried and wetted soil. Soil Biol Biochem 26:1379–1387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gong Z, Zhang G, Chen Z (2003) Development of soil classification in China. In: Eswaran H (ed) Soil classification. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 101–125Google Scholar
  10. Gordillo R, Cabrera M (1997) Mineralizable nitrogen in broiler litter: II. Effect of selected soil characteristics. J Environ Qual 26:1679–1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guenet B, Juarez S, Bardoux G, Abbadie L, Chenu C (2012) Evidence that stable C is as vulnerable to priming effect as is more labile C in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 52:43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014–synthesis report. Denmark, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  13. ISO, 2005. Soil quality – determination of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium in field-moist soils by extraction with potassium chloride solution – Part 2: automated method with segmented flow analysisGoogle Scholar
  14. IUSS Working Group WRB. 2015. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, update 2015. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  15. Martínez JM, Galantini JA, Duval ME (2018) Contribution of nitrogen mineralization indices, labile organic matter and soil properties in predicting nitrogen mineralization. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 18:73–89Google Scholar
  16. Moya H, Verdejo J, Yáñez C, Álvaro JE, Sauvé S, Neaman A (2017) Nitrification and nitrogen mineralization in agricultural soils contaminated by copper mining activities in Central Chile. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 17:205–213Google Scholar
  17. Kätterer T, Reichstein M, Andrén O, Lomander A (1998) Temperature dependence of organic matter decomposition: a critical review using literature data analyzed with different models. Biol Fertil Soils 27:258–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liang B, Yang XY, He XH, Zhou JB (2011) Effects of 17-year fertilization on soil microbial biomass C and N and soluble organic C and N in loessial soil during maize growth. Biol Fertil Soils 4:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu JS, Dai J, Wang ZH, Zhai BN (2016) Effects of fallow or planting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and fertilizing P or fertilizing P and N practices on soil carbon and nitrogen in a low-organic-matter soil. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 62:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Magdoff F, Weil R, Ray RW (2004) Soil organic matter management strategies. In: Magdoff F, Ray RW (eds) Soil organic matter in sustainable agriculture. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, pp 45–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Manna M, Swarup A, Wanjari R, Singh Y, Ghosh P, Singh K, Tripathi A, Saha M (2006) Soil organic matter in a West Bengal Inceptisol after 30 years of multiple cropping and fertilization. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:121–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. 1982. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2: Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. ASA and SSSA, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  23. Potthoff M, Dyckmans J, Flessa H, Muhs A, Beese F, Joergensen RG (2005) Dynamics of maize (Zea mays L.) leaf straw mineralization as affected by the presence of soil and the availability of nitrogen. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1259–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reeves DW (1997) The role of soil organic matter in maintaining soil quality in continuous cropping systems. Soil Tillage Res 43:131–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rodríguez I, Pérez P, Santás V, Nóvoa J, Arias M, Díaz M, Fernández D (2017) Carbon mineralization in acidic soils amended with an organo-mineral bentonite waste. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 17:624–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rudrappa L, Purakayastha TJ, Singh D, Bhadraray S (2006) Long-term manuring and fertilization effects on soil organic carbon pools in a Typic Haplustept of semi-arid sub-tropical India. Soil Tillage Res 88:180–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sainju UM, Singh BP, Whitehead WF (2002) Long-term effects of tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization on organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in sandy loam soils in Georgia, USA. Soil Tillage Res 63:167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sharifi M, Zebarth BJ, Miller JJ, Burton DL, Grant CA (2014) Soil nitrogen mineralization in a soil with long-term history of fresh and composted manure containing straw or wood-chip bedding. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 99:63–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Srinivasarao CH, Venkateswarlu B, Lal R, Singh AK, Kundu S, Vittal KPP, Patel JJ, Patel MM (2011) Long-term manuring and fertilizer effects on depletion of soil organic carbon stocks under pearl millet-cluster bean-castor rotation in western India. Land Degrad Dev 25:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stanford G, Smith SJ (1972) Nitrogen mineralization potentials of soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 36:465–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tian H, Wang H, Hui XL, Wang ZH, Drijber R, Liu JS (2017) Changes in soil microbial communities after 10 years of winter wheat cultivation versus fallow in an organic-poor soil in the Loess Plateau of China. PLoS One 12:e0184223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Torbert H, Prior S, Reeves D (1999) Land management effects on nitrogen and carbon cycling in an Ultisol. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 30:1345–1349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang Y, Zhou JB, Yang XY (2010) Effects of different long-term fertilization on the fractions of organic nitrogen and nitrogen mineralization in soils. Sci Agric Sin 43:1182–1189 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  34. Watts D, Torbert H, Prior S (2007) Mineralization of nitrogen in soils amended with dairy manure as affected by wetting/drying cycles. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 38:2103–2116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yang XY, Ren WD, Sun BH, Zhang SL (2012) Effects of contrasting soil management regimes on total and labile soil organic carbon fractions in a loess soil in China. Geoderma 177:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sociedad Chilena de la Ciencia del Suelo 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiang Zhang
    • 1
  • Hui Wang
    • 1
  • Xiaoli Hui
    • 1
  • Zhaohui Wang
    • 1
  • Jinshan Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agro-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture/College of Natural Resources and EnvironmentNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina

Personalised recommendations