Effect of diet, maintenance frequency, and environmental conditions on the rearing of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in Neotropical highlands

  • Marco A. DíazEmail author
  • Jhon Avellaneda
  • Daniel Rodríguez
Original Research Article


To standardize and optimize the mass rearing of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), an important natural enemy of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a method using a production batch system for the rearing of this predator was evaluated. A total of 28 production batches (one batch was defined as a set of cohorts) were evaluated, in which some variables were alternated, such as the rearing conditions (laboratory or greenhouse), type of diet provided (F. occidentalis individuals alone or with Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and frequency of maintenance (24 or 48 h). Each batch was monitored by recording parameters necessary for rearing, such as the survival of initial individuals, oviposition, time taken for new adult individuals to develop, and the total production of new adults. It was determined that when using a mixed diet, the production of new adult individuals was 8.4 times greater than when only a single food source was provided. Additionally, the constant conditions of the laboratory resulted in 4.9 times greater production than in the greenhouse and reduced the time required to obtain new individuals by 11.8 days. Further, a 48-h feeding frequency produced 4.2 times more individuals than a 24-h frequency. Control of these parameters will allow the standardization of a batch production process for ensuring the continuation of O. insidiosus production for use in biological control programs.


Frankliniella occidentalis Mass rearing Factitious prey Oviposition Survival Mixed diet 



We thank the interns of the Horticultural Production Technology program of the Universidad Militar Nueva Granada: Camilo Guijo, Segundo Saganome y Florentino Parada for the execution of this project.

Authors’ contributions

MD, JA, and DR conceived the research idea. MD designed and performed the experiments and took the lead in writing the manuscript. DR verified the methods and performed the analysis. JA contributed to the interpretation of the results. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

Funding information

This study was funded by the Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento para La Ciencia, la Tecnología, y la Innovación Francisco José de Caldas de COLCIENCIAS. “Product derived from the Project CIAS-1919 co-financed by Research Vicerectory from Universidad Militar Nueva Granada”.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (Ethical Commite Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Research project CIAS-1919). This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© African Association of Insect Scientists 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio de Control Biológico, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas y AplicadasUniversidad Militar Nueva GranadaCajicáColombia

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