Advertisement

Comparison of signal preprocessing techniques for avoiding spectral leakage in auditory steady-state responses

  • Felipe AntunesEmail author
  • Leonardo Bonato Felix
Technical Communication
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) can be detected with the magnitude-squared coherence (MSC)—which is an objective response detector in the frequency domain. The performance of detection techniques is affected by the spectral leakage that arises from the Fourier analysis.

Methods

This study aimed at investigating two preprocessing techniques designed to mitigate spectral leakage: windowing and bandpass filtering. These two procedures were applied prior to the application of the MSC in the detection of ASSRs in the electroencephalogram of healthy volunteers. The ASSRs were evoked by amplitude modulated tones.

Results

Preprocessing techniques usually improve the performance of MSC, but windowing procedures were worse when compared to filtering. The filtering preprocessing improved the detection rate up to 145.7%. The false positive rates remained close to the significance level of the tests.

Conclusion

In order to mitigate the spectral leakage effects on the performance of MSC in detecting ASSR, bandpass filtering is preferred to windowing. The best results were obtained by 8th order IIR filters (Butterworth, Type 1 Chebyshev, and Elliptic).

Keywords

Auditory steady-state response Magnitude-squared coherence Spectral leakage 

Notes

Funding information

This work received financial support of the Brazilian Agencies: CAPES-Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, CNPq–Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and FAPEMIG–Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

Work approved by the Local Ethics Committee. (UFV/CAAE: 56346916.4.0000.5153)

References

  1. Breitenbach A. Against spectral leakage. Measurement. 1999;25(2):135–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen KF. Estimating parameters of a sine wave by separable nonlinear least squares fitting. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 2010;59(12):3214–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Diao R, Meng Q. Frequency estimation by iterative interpolation based on leakage compensation. Measurement. 2015;59:44–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dobie RA, Wilson MJ. Analysis of auditory evoked-potentials by magnitude-squared coherence. Ear Hear. 1989;10(1):2–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Felix LB, Moraes JE, de Sá M, A. M. F. L, Yehia HC, Moraes MFD. Avoiding spectral leakage in objective detection of auditory steady-state evoked responses in the inferior colliculus of rat using coherence. J Neurosci Methods. 2005;144(2):249–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Harris FJ. On the use of windows for harmonic analysis with the discrete Fourier transform. Proc. IEEE. 1978;66(1):51–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. John MS, Lins OG, Boucher BL, Picton TW. Multiple auditory steady-state responses (MASTER): stimulus and recording parameters. Audiology. 1998;37(2):59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kay SM. Detection theory, Fundamentals of statistical signal processing, vol. II. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.; 1998.Google Scholar
  9. Kuwada S, Batra R, Maher VI. Scalp potentials of normal and hearing impaired subjects in response to sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones. Hear Res. 1986;21(2):179–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Michel F, Jorgensen KF. Comparison of threshold estimation in infants with hearing loss or normal hearing using auditory steady-state response evoked by narrow band CE-chirps and auditory brainstem response evoked by tone pips. Int J Audiol. 2017;56(2):99–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Miranda de Sá AMFL. A note on the sampling distribution of coherence estimate for the detection of periodic signals. IEEE Signal Process Lett. 2004;11(3):323–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Miranda de Sá AMFL, Infantosi AFC. Evaluating the relationship of non-phase locked activities in the electroencephalogram during intermittent stimulation: a partial coherence-based approach. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2007;45(7):635–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Motamedi-Fakhr S, Moshrefi-Torbati M, Hill M, Hill CM, White PR. Signal processing techniques applied to human sleep EEG signals–A review. Biomed. Signal Process. Control. 2014;10:21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Picton TW, John MS, Dimitrijevic A, Purcell DW. Human auditory steady-state responses. Int J Audiol. 2003;42(4):177–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Raze S, Dallet D, Marchegay P. Non coherent spectral analysis of ADC using FFT windows: an alternative approach. In Intell. Data Acquis. Adv. Comput. Syst. Technol Appl. 2005:474–8.Google Scholar
  16. Rebai C, Dallet D, Marchegay P. Noncoherent spectral analysis of ADC using filter bank. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 2004;53(3):652–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sininger YS, Hunter LL, Hayes D, Roush PA, Uhler KM. Evaluation of speed and accuracy of next-generation auditory steady state response and auditory brainstem response audiometry in children with normal hearing and hearing loss. Ear Hear. 2018.Google Scholar
  18. Smith WHF. Spectral windows for satellite radar altimeters. Adv. Space Res. 2018;62:1576–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sudani S, Chen D, Geiger R. A 2-FFT method for on-chip spectral testing without requiring coherency. In Instrum. Meas. Technol. Conf. (I2MTC). 2011:1–6.Google Scholar
  20. Wu X, Wang A. Harmonic signal processing method based on the windowing interpolated DFT algorithm. J. Inf. Sci. Eng. 2015;31(3):787–98.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  21. Xi J, Chicaro JF. A new algorithm for improving the accuracy of periodic signals analysis. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas. 1996;45(4):827–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yu Y, Xu Y, Liu X. Research of improved iterative DFT method in harmonic current detection. In: Power Energy Eng Conf (APPEEC). IEEE, Asia-Pacific; 2011. p. 1–4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Sociedade Brasileira de Engenharia Biomedica 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federal Institute of Education Science and Technology of Minas GeraisIpatingaBrazil
  2. 2.Graduate Program in Electrical EngineeringFederal University of São João del-ReiSão João del-ReiBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Electrical EngineeringFederal University of ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  4. 4.Interdisciplinary Center for Signal Analysis, Department of Electrical EngineeringFederal University of ViçosaViçosaBrazil

Personalised recommendations