, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 473–485 | Cite as

Photosynthetic efficiency in Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. genotypes

  • Kuldeepsingh A. KalariyaEmail author
  • Dipal Minipara
  • Parmeshwar Lal Saran
  • Lipi Poojara
  • A. C. Polireddy
  • P. Manivel
Research Articles


Leaves of Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex SCHULT plants are used to cure the most prevalent and important life style disease, the diabetes mellitus. Gymnema is a slow growing plant genotype with the requirement of higher photosynthetic rate. Presently, there is no report available on gaseous exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in gymnema. Total 44 genotypes were evaluated for their physiological efficiencies during post rainy season in sub-tropical region of Gujarat.The light curve studies indicated the light requirement of the plants to be between 1000 and 1250 µ mol (photons) m−2 s−1. Genotypes were categorized into low, medium and high groups considering over all mean values of different parameters ± standard deviation. Seven genotypes showed higher photosynthetic rate (PN), nine genotypes showed higher stomatal conductance (gs), six genotype exhibited higher transpiration rate (E), five genotypes revealed higher intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEint), eight genotypes manifested maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), seven genotypes reached maximum actual efficiency of PSII (\({\text{F}}_{\text{v}}^{{\prime }}\)/\({\text{F}}_{\text{m}}^{{\prime }}\)), six genotype showed maximum quantum yield of PSII (ɸPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR) and seven genotypes exhibited higher open PS II centers (qP). The correlation matrix revealed that the PN was strongly positively correlated with gs, \({\text{F}}_{\text{v}}^{{\prime }}\)/\({\text{F}}_{\text{m}}^{{\prime }}\), ΦPSII and ETR. DGS-2 and DGS-18 were physiologically most efficient genotypes having high values in seven common parameters. These parameters were PN, gs, Fv/Fm, \({\text{F}}_{\text{v}}^{{\prime }}\)/\({\text{F}}_{\text{m}}^{{\prime }}\), ΦPSII, qP and ETR will be very useful in crop improvement program focused on biomass maximization in Gymnema sylvestre.


Chlorophyll fluorescence Gymnema sylvestre Maximum efficiency of photosynthesis Stomatal conductance Water use efficiency 



Net photosynthetic rate


Stomatal conductance


Intracellular CO2


Transpiration rate


Intrinsic water use efficiency


Maximum photochemical efficiency

\({\text{F}}_{\text{v}}^{{\prime }}\)/\({\text{F}}_{\text{m}}^{{\prime }}\)

Actual efficiency of PSII


Quantum yield of PSII


Nonphotochemical quenching






Specific leaf Area


Unit leaf Area


Stomatal limitations


Leaf water potential


Open PS II centers


Electron transport rate


Non photochemical quenching coefficient


Standard deviation


Least significant difference


Degree of freedom


Fresh mass


Dry mass



Authors are grateful to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi and the Director, ICAR-DMAPR, Anand for providing all basic facilities and the Gujarat State Biotechnology Mission, Government of Gujarat, India for funding assistance. We are also thankful to the germplasm collectors and curators of the germplasm used in this study.


This article was funded by FAP Scheme 2015-16 from GSBTM, Govt. of Gujarat, Gujarat, India (Grant No. GSBTM 4867, 2016-17,23.09.2016).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. Ahmed A, Rao AS, Rao MV, Taha RM (2012) Production of Gymnemic acid depends on medium, explants, PGRs, color lights, temperature, photoperiod, and sucrose sources in batch culture of Gymnema sylvestre. Sci World J 1–11Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2005) What have we learned from 15 years of free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) A metaanalytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2. New Phytol 165(2):351–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Araus JL, Amaro T, Voltas J, Nakkoul H, Nachit MM (1998) Chlorophyll fluorescence as a selection criterion for grain yield in durum wheat under Mediterranean conditions. Field Crops Res 55(3):209–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnon DI (1949) Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol 24(1):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker NR, Horton P (1987) Physiological factors associated with fluorescence quenching during photoinhibition. In: Arntzen CJ, Kyle DJ, Osmond CB (eds) Topics in photosynthesis, photoinhibition. Elsevier, The Netherlands, pp 9145–9168Google Scholar
  6. Belko N, Zaman-Allah M, Cisse N, Diop NN, Zombre G, Ehlers JD, Vadez V (2012) Lower soil moisture threshold for transpiration decline under water deficit correlates with lower canopy conductance and higher transpiration efficiency in drought-tolerant cowpea. Funct Plant Biol 39(4):306–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bilger W, Björkman O (1990) Role of the xanthophyll cycle in photoprotection elucidated by measurements of light-induced absorbance changes, fluorescence and photosynthesis in leaves of Hederacanariensis. Photosynth Res 25(3):173–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Björkman O, Demmig-Adams B (1995) Regulation of photosynthetic light energy capture, conversion, and dissipation in leaves of higher plants. Ecophysiology of photosynthesis. Springer, Berlin, pp 17–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bogale A, Tesfaye K, Geleto T (2011) Morphological and physiological attributes associated to drought tolerance of Ethiopian durum wheat genotypes under water deficit condition. J Biodivers Environ Sci 1(2):22–36Google Scholar
  10. Butler WL, Kitajima M (1975) Fluorescence quenching in photosystem II of chloroplasts. Biochimica et BiophysicaActa (BBA)-Bioenergetics 376(1):116–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cao T, Isoda A (2008) Dry matter production of Japanese and Chinese high-yielding peanut cultivars under dense planting in terms of intercepted radiation and its use efficiency. Jpn J Crop Sci 77(1):41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dhanani T, Singh R, Waman A, Patel P, Manivel P, Kumar S (2015) Assessment of diversity amongst natural populations of Gymnema sylvestre from India and development of a validated HPLC protocol for identification and quantification of gymnemagenin. Ind Crops Prod 77:901–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dwyer JF, McPherson EG, Schroeder HW, Rowntree RA (1992) Assessing the benefits and costs of the urban forest. J Arboricult 18:227Google Scholar
  14. Finazzi G, Johnson GN, Dall’Osto L, Zito F, Bonente G, Bassi R, Wollman FA (2006) Nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochem 45(5):1490–1498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fracheboud Y, Jompuk C, Ribaut JM, Stamp P, Leipner J (2004) Genetic analysis of cold-tolerance of photosynthesis in maize. Plant Mol Biol 56(2):241–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Genty B, Briantais JM, Baker NR (1989) The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochimica et BiophysicaActa (BBA)-General Subjects 990(1):87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guo P, Li R (2000) Effects of high nocturnal temperature on photosynthetic organization in rice leaves. Acta BotanicaSinica 42(7):673–678Google Scholar
  18. Isoda A (2010) Effects of water stress on leaf temperature and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in cotton and peanut. Plant Prod Sci 13(3):269–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kalariya KA, Singh AL, Chakraborty K, Zala PV, Patel CB (2013) Photosynthetic characteristics of groundnut (Arachishypogaea L.) under water deficit stress. Indian J Plant Physiol 18(2):157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kalariya KA, Singh AL, Goswami N, Mehta D, Mahatma MK, Ajay BC, Chakraborty K, Zala PV, Chaudhary V, Patel CB (2015) Photosynthetic characteristics of peanut genotypes under excess and deficit irrigation during summer. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 21(3):317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kalariya KA, Goshwami Nisha, Mehta Deepti, Singh AL, Saran PL (2019) Chlorophyll fluorescence: a physiological mechanism and a physical tool in plant eco-physiological studies. IN Adv Plant Physiol 18:201–242Google Scholar
  22. Krause GH, Weis E (1991) Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: the basics. Annu Rev Plant Biol 42(1):313–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Krishna RB, Reddy SR, Vijayalakshmi M, Anugna K, Divyavani N, Reddy KJ (2012) Molecular characterization of 17 accessions of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. using RAPD markers. Int J Pharma Biosci 3:126–135Google Scholar
  24. Liu G, Yang C, Xu K, Zhang Z, Li D, Wu Z, Chen Z (2012) Development of yield and some photosynthetic characteristics during 82 years of genetic improvement of soybean genotypes in northeast China. Aust J Crop Sci 6(10):1416Google Scholar
  25. Maheshwari N, Nadgauda RS (2016) Variation in gymnemic acid content in Gymnema germplasm from different geographical regions of Gujarat. J Chem Pharma Res 8(3):37–41Google Scholar
  26. Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000) Chlorophyll fluorescence—a practical guide. J Exp Bot 51(345):659–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Misra AN (1993) Molecular mechanism of turn-over of 32 kDa-herbicide binding protein of photosyntem II reaction center. Adv Plant Biotechnol Biochem 73–78Google Scholar
  28. Misra AN, Terashima I (2003) Changes in photosystem activities during adapatation of Viciafaba seedlings to low, moderate and high temperatures. Plant Cell PhysiolGoogle Scholar
  29. Misra AN, Ramaswamy NK, Desai TS (1997) Thermoluminescence studies on the photoinhibition of pothos leaf discs at chilling, room and high temperature. J Photochem Photobiol B: Biol 38(2–3):164–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Misra AN, Srivastava A, Strasser RJ (2001a) Utilization of fast chlorophyll a fluorescence technique in assessing the salt/ion sensitivity of mung bean and Brassica seedlings. J Plant Physiol 158(9):1173–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Misra AN, Srivastava A, Strasser RJ (2001-b) Fast chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetic analysis for the assessment of temperature and light effects: A dynamic model for stress recovery phenomena, Photosynthsis, PS2001 CSIRO Publ., Melbourne, Australia S3-007Google Scholar
  32. Misra AN, Srivastava A, Strasser RJ (2007) Elastic and plastic responses of Viciafaba leaves to high temperature and high light stress. In: Gordon Conference on “Temperature stress in plants”Google Scholar
  33. Müller P, Li XP, Niyogi KK (2001) Non-photochemical quenching. A response to excess light energy. Plant physiology 125(4):1558–1566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nigam SN, Chandra S, Sridevi KR, Bhukta M, Reddy AG, Rachaputi NR, Wright GC, Reddy PV, Deshmukh MP, Mathur RK, Basu MS (2005) Efficiency of physiological trait-based and empirical selection approaches for drought tolerance in groundnut. Ann Appl Biol 146(4):433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Onofri A (2007) Routine statistical analyses of field experiments by using an Excel extension. In: 6th National Conference of the Italian Biometric Society 20 (Vol. 2022)Google Scholar
  36. Rahbarian R, Khavari-Nejad R, Ganjeali A, Bagheri A, Najafi F (2011) Drought stress effects on photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and water relations in tolerant and susceptible chickpea (Cicerarietinum L.) genotypes. ActaBiologicaCracoviensia Series Botanica 53(1):47–56Google Scholar
  37. Ravindra V, Rathnakumar AL, Ajay BC, Zala PV (2012) Genetic variations in photosynthetic rate, pod yield and yield components in Spanish groundnut cultivars during three cropping seasons. Field Crops Res 18(125):83–91Google Scholar
  38. Richards RA (2000) Selectable traits to increase crop photosynthesis and yield of grain crops. J Exp Bot 51(suppl_1):447–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roháček K, Soukupová J, Barták M (2008) Chlorophyll fluorescence: a wonderful tool to study plant physiology and plant stress (2012) Plant Cell Compartments-Selected Topics. Research Signpost, Kerala, p 41-10Google Scholar
  40. Schreiber U (2004) Pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) fluorometry and saturation pulse method: an overview. Chlorophylla fluorescence. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 279–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schreiber U, Schliwa U, Bilger W (1986) Continuous recording of photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching with a new type of modulation fluorometer. Photosynth Res 10(1–2):51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shahnawaz M, Zanan RL, Wakte KV, Mathure SV, Kad TD, Deokule SS, Nadaf AB (2012) Genetic diversity assessment of Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R. Br. ex Sm. populations from Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. Genetic Resour Crop Evolut 59(1):125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sinclair TR (2012) Is transpiration efficiency a viable plant trait in breeding for crop improvement. Funct Plant Biol 39(5):359–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Singh AL, Nakar RN, Chakraborty K, Kalariya KA (2014) Physiological efficiencies in mini-core peanut germplasm accessions during summer season. Photosynthetica 52(4):627–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Songsri P, Jogloy S, Holbrook CC, Kesmala T, Vorasoot N, Akkasaeng C, Patanothai A (2009) Association of root, specific leaf area and SPAD chlorophyll meter reading to water use efficiency of peanut under different available soil water. Agric Water Manag 96(5):790–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zimare SB, Borde MY, Jite PK, Malpathak NP (2013) Effect of AM Fungi (Gf, Gm) on Biomass and Gymnemic Acid Content of Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R. Br. ex Sm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences 83(3):439-45CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Plant Research 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants ResearchAnandIndia

Personalised recommendations