Advertisement

Optimum Sublevel Height and Drift Spacing in Sublevel Cave Mining Based on Random Medium Theory

  • Kunpeng YuEmail author
  • Fengyu Ren
  • Gideon Chitombo
  • Ruslan Puscasu
  • Liangliang Kang
Article
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

Weak rock mass and poor flow of material can cause excessive ore loss and dilution in sublevel caving. This paper proposes a method to establish design parameters for an inclined deposit within a weak rock mass and evaluates its effectiveness through a case study. In order to solve the problem of low production capacity and poor safety conditions of sublevel caving mining at the Yingfangzi silver mine in China and to ensure a smooth production from the refractory ore body, it is necessary to select appropriate stope structure parameters. Based on random medium theory of gravity flow and the improved equation of ore discharge in random medium, an end wall drawing experiment is carried out to determine the optimum design and flow parameters. It was observed from the experiment that, due to the influence of the randomness of particle movement, there is a mismatch in the flow parameter measurement. The flow characteristics and distribution of the marker particles are different from that of the tested particles resulting in large drawbody shape distortion. The study finds that the flow parameters obtained by the new method are more practical and account for drawpoint width and recommends that the new method for determining the sublevel stope height is used when the drawbody is a non-standard ellipsoid. The outcomes have shown a significant reduction in the dilution and improvement in the recovery rates, and the safety and efficiency of mining have been greatly improved.

Keywords

Random medium theory Sublevel caving Sublevel height Drift spacing Stope structure parameters 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number 51534003], the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China [grant number 2016YFC0801601] and the China Scholarship Council [grant number 201706080072].

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The Conflict of Interest Statement

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Wagner H (2019) Deep mining: a rock engineering challenge. Rock Mech Rock Eng 52:1417–1446.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-019-01799-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Durrheim RJ (2010) Mitigating the risk of rockbursts in the deep hard rock mines of South Africa: 100 years of research. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., ISBN 978-0-87335-322-9, pp 156-171Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bull G, Page CH (2000) Sublevel caving–today’s dependable low-cost ‘ore factory’. MassMin 2000 Proceedings. Brisbane: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metalurgy, pp 537–556Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wilson AH (1983) The stability of underground workings in the soft rocks of the coal measures. Int J Min Eng 1:91–187.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00880785 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Castro R, Pineda M (2015) The role of gravity flow in the design and planning of large sublevel stopes. J South Afr Inst Min Metall 115(2):113–118.  https://doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2015/v115n2a4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hustrulid W, Kvapil R (2008) Sublevel caving–past and future. Proceedings of the 5th international conference and exhibition on mass mining, Luleå University Press, Luleå, pp 107–132Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Woodruff SD (1966) Methods of working coal and metal mines: planning and operations, M. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mudd GM, Jowitt SM, Werner TT (2017) The world's by-product and critical metal resources part I: uncertainties, current reporting practices, implications and grounds for optimism. Ore Geol Rev 86:924–938.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang ZX (2016) Failure of hanging roofs in sublevel caving by shock collision and stress superposition. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 8(6):886–895.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2016.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jaak JK Daemen (2003) Mining Engineering. Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition) pp 65–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-227410-5/00871-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Freidin AM, Neverov SA, Neverov AA, Filippov PA (2008) Mine stability with application of sublevel caving schemes. J Min Sci 44(1):82–91.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10913-008-0008-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brady B, Brown E (2007) Longwall and caving mining methods. Rock mechanics for underground mining, pp 430–483.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-2116-9_15
  13. 13.
    KumarHaldar S (2018) Chapter 12 - Elements of Mining. Mineral Exploration (Second Edition) Principles and Applications, pp 229–258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814022-2.00012-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tao GQ, Lu MX, Zhang XF, Zhang R, Zhu ZH (2019) A new diversion drawing technique for controlling ore loss and dilution during longitudinal sublevel caving. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 113:163–171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2018.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brunton ID, Fraser SJ, Hodgkinson JH, Stewart PC (2010) Parameters influencing full scale sublevel caving material recovery at the ridgeway gold mine. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 47(4):647–656.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2009.12.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Martinez MA, Newman AM (2011) A solution approach for optimizing long - and short-term production scheduling at LKAB’s Kiruna mine. Eur J Oper Res 211(1):184–197.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2010.12.008 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Castro RL, Fuenzalida MA, Lund F (2014) Experimental study of gravity flow under confined conditions. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 67:164–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2014.01.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bustillo RM (2018) Mineral Resource Extraction. Mineral Resources. In: Springer Textbooks in Earth Sciences, Geography and Environment. Springer, Cham, pp 311–421.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58760-8_5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ren FY (1994) The stochastic medium method of ore-drawing and its application. Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Melo F, Vivanco F, Fuentes C (2009) Calculated isolated extracted and movement zones compared to scaled models for block caving. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 46(4):731–737.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ren FY (1992) Theory and practical application of random medium for ore drawing. Northeast University, Shenyang (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tao GQ, Ren FY, Liu ZD et al (2010) Research on improvement of the stochastic medium theory for ore drawing. J Min Saf Eng 27(02):239–243 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wimmer M (2010) Gravity flow of broken rock in sublevel caving (SLC) – state-of-the-art. Luleå University of Technology, LuleåGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Johansson D, Ouchterlony F (2011) Fragmentation in small-scale confined blasting. Int J Min Miner Eng 3(1):72–94.  https://doi.org/10.1504/ijmme.2011.041450 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brady BHG, Brown ET (2004) Rock mechanics for underground mining, 3rd edn. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Power GR (2004) Modelling granular flow in caving mines: large scale physical modelling and full scale experiments, PhD thesis, University of QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Janelid I, Kvapil R (1966) Sublevel caving. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstracts 3(2):129–153.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(66)90004-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration Inc. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Resources and Civil EngineeringNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.Sustainable Minerals InstituteThe University of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia
  3. 3.Mining3Pinjarra HillsAustralia
  4. 4.CSIRO Mineral ResourcesQueensland Centre for Advanced TechnologiesPullenvaleAustralia
  5. 5.Patent Examination Cooperation Hubei Center of the Patent OfficeWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations