Blast-Induced Rock Fragmentation in Wet Holes

  • Hesam DehghaniEmail author
  • Nima Babanouri
  • Farid Alimohammadnia
  • Mokhtar Kalhori


In open-pit mining, blasting pattern design is performed to achieve a desired degree of fragmentation for loading, hauling, and crushing operations. Inappropriate fragmentation of rock will result in numerous problems such as incurring extra costs for secondary blasting, production interruption, etc. Wetness of the blast holes is one of the most important factors, which can cause the inappropriate rock fragmentation. Lowering ambient temperature in the vicinity of the explosion, the presence of water in the hole adversely affects the quality of the explosive while dissipating part of the explosion energy, ending up with inappropriate fragmentation problems. In the present research, in order to study blast-induced fragmentation conditions in Baba-Ali Iron Ore Mine, three scenarios were considered: explosion of ammonium nitrate with fuel oil (ANFO) in dry hole, explosion of ANFO in wet hole, and explosion of the emulsion in wet hole. For this purpose LS-DYNA, a numerical simulation code was used. Results of the present research showed that, compared to the explosion of ANFO in wet hole, the explosion of the emulsion produced more uniform distribution of fragment size, while the explosion of ANFO in dry hole resulted in fewer large fragments.


Wet hole ANFO Emulsion Fragmentation Blasting 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mining EngineeringHamedan University of TechnologyHamedanIran
  2. 2.Department of Mining EngineeringTehran UniversityTehranIran

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