Investigations on performance and emission parameters of direct injection diesel engine running with Mesua ferrea oil methyl ester blends
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The present study deals with the experimental analysis on performance and emission characteristics of VCR diesel engine operating through Mesua ferrea oil methyl ester (MFOME) blends at different injection operating pressures of 180 bar, 200 bar, and 220 bar. Four test fuels were used in this analysis namely diesel, MFOME10, MFOME20, and MFOME30. The conventional diesel has shown higher BTE than the leftover MFOME blends while the BSFC was also lowered for conventional diesel. Emission parameters namely CO, UHC, and smoke opacity were reduced while the CO2 and NOx were greater intended for MFOME blends than conventional diesel. The similar trend was followed at all three injection pressures and better results were noticed at an injection operating pressure of 220 bar. The performance of MFOME20 is somewhat nearer to conventional diesel and better emission concerning CO, UHC, and smoke opacity were with MFOME20.
KeywordsMesua ferrea Performance Brake specific fuel consumption Transesterification Emissions
Mesua ferrea oil methyl ester
- MFOME 10
MFOME 10% in diesel
- MFOME 20
MFOME 20% in diesel
- MFOME 40
MFOME 40% in diesel
Brake thermal efficiency (%)
Brake specific fuel consumption (kg/kW h)
Brake specific energy consumption (MJ/kW h)
Carbon monoxide (%)
Carbon dioxide (%)
Unburnt hydrocarbon (ppm)
Nitrogen oxides (ppm)
American standards for testing materials
Analog to digital converter
Compression ratio/Compression ratios
Variable compression ratio
Quantity of biodiesel (% by volume)
Quantity of diesel (% by volume)
Total fuel consumption (Kg/hr)
Calorific value (MJ/kg)
Brake power (kW)
Torque (N m)
Volume of burette (m3)
Density of diesel (kg/m3)
Density of biodiesel (kg/m3)
In the current scenario, the crude oil reserves in the world are getting exhausted more rapidly. This made investigators look for alternate resources which are able to recompense the loss. Hence, one of the superlative promising ways to achieve this by the investigators is biofuels. Biodiesel is the famous favored remedy for bulk production and additionally for scientific demand. The majority of agriculture, transportation, and industrial sectors run currently with diesel engines. Also, biodiesel is the most chosen alternative source owing to its lower carbon content and ecological benefits. Biodiesel can be derived from different oils of vegetables, crops, and fats from animals [1, 2]. There is a restriction of use of vegetable oils directly in diesel in engines on account of having higher viscosity and thus the viscosity of oils must be reduced. This could be reduced by a familiar and less expensive technique namely transesterification or alcoholysis process. For the period of transesterification reaction, the methanol or ethanol or other alcohols are used however the methanol and ethanol are extensively preferred owing to their cheaper availability. Catalysts are used with the alcohols to improve the reaction rate [3, 4]. Agarwal et al.  used the transesterification method as an imposing method of reducing the viscosity of oil. After this, the desirable properties need to be assessed for the acquired biodiesel (methyl ester), and hence they tested and reported the physicochemical properties of diverse biodiesels and evaluated according to ASTM standards. From their conclusion, more are less all the biodiesels are within the ASTM range. The diesel engine is required to undergo for the assessment of engine performance and exhaust emissions with several blend grouping of biodiesel and conventional diesel to find the optimum combination which can be suited for the better improvement of performance and good reduction of emissions . Up to 30% blending of biodiesel with conventional diesel is favorable in CI engine for suitable performance and emissions assessment, but the combustion parameters can improve at up to somewhat blending on account of superior oxygen presence in the biodiesel . Hwai et al.  used Callophylum inophylum, Jatropha curcas, and Ceiba pentandra oil biodiesel blends (B10, B20, B30, and B50) in their investigation. The biodiesel blend B10 shown the optimum performance than leftover blends in terms of BTE, BSFC, and torque. Further, the exhaust emissions concerning the biodiesel blends were diminished than conventional diesel. Haveer et al.  carried out an experimental investigation on diesel engine operating with the blends of Sal methyl ester. From their results, the BTE was found to be lowered with increase in blend ratio and the BSEC was attained minimum in favor of B10 as compared to left over test fuels. But, the exhaust emissions of CO, UHC, and smoke were noticed less than diesel. Further, the NOx emissions found higher with the blends of sal methyl ester.
With the exception of the above literature, a number of studies have been conducted with different vegetable oils as a biodiesel source. To the extent that this study concern, the endeavor using Mesua ferrea oil as the resource is quite a novel move towards the biodiesel research. Also, the variation in injection operating pressure for the assessment of performance and emission is a fresh attempt with this Mesua ferrea oil methyl ester blends.
2.1 Production of biodiesel
Properties characterization of MFOME oil and their blends
Fuel property (units)
Kinematic Viscosity at 40 °C (Cts)
Calorific value (MJ/kg)
Density at 15 °C (kg/m3)
2.2 Experimental setup
Technical specifications of the experimental setup
Number of cylinders
110 mm/87.5 mm
180 bar, 200 bar, and 220 bar
Injection point variation
30° Before TDC
Measurement and accuracy of the devices
± 0.2 kg
± 25 rpm
Crank angle sensor
Resolution of 1°
± 2 ppm
± 1 ppm
3 Results and discussions
3.1 Performance parameters
The performance parameters namely BTE and BSFC were presented in terms of graphical representation by varying the injection pressures (IPs) and different engine load settings.
3.2 Emission parameters
The emission parameters of MFOME blends and conventional diesel were assessed and represented graphically at three diverse IPs. The graphs were depicted at maximum load condition (100% load condition).
3.2.5 Smoke opacity
The transesterification using K3PO4 catalyst has improved the yield of the methyl ester.
The physicochemical properties of MFOME were corresponding to ASTM standards. The cetane number was reasonably enhanced which leads to better combustion in the diesel engine.
Performance characteristics namely BTE and BSFC were higher for conventional diesel compared to MFOME blends. MFOME 20 has reached somewhat nearer to diesel. The maximum BTE and BSFC were observed at an injection pressure of 220 bar.
The emission characteristics of MFOME 20 were observed lower than leftover test fuel blends. The decrease in CO, UHC, and smoke opacity were 57.91%, 28.77%, and 4.2% respectively while the increase in CO2 and NOx were 8.97% and 34.05% respectively compared to conventional diesel at an injection pressure of 220 bar. Further, MFOME 10 and MFOME 40 have shown better emission characteristics after MFOME 20.
From the above conclusions, MFOME can be the best trusted alternative fuel source in CI engine and the MFOME 20 can be replaced in the engine without any amendment.
The Authors acknowledge GITAM Deemed to be University and HPCL Visakhapatnam for their support towards conducting experiments and tests in their laboratories.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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