A comparative study of P&O and INC maximum power point tracking techniques for grid-connected PV systems
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The electrical demand is quickly increased, and renewable energy sources are an indispensable need for supporting the electric grid and supplying the isolated loads. Renewable energy is found in numerous forms like solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy. Solar power system is clean, and large amounts of solar radiation arrive to the surface of the earth. This paper aims to maximize the amount of extracted electrical power from the solar energy system. This work investigates in detail the concept of MPPT techniques which significantly increase the efficiency of the solar PV system. This paper presents a simulation-based comparative study between two most common algorithms, perturb and observe and incremental conductance techniques, to optimize the energy conversion efficiency of PV system. Simulation analysis and results of the PV module are made to get its characteristics.
KeywordsGrid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques Power converters
Recently, renewable energy resources like wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV) panels, gas turbines and fuel cells have gained a significant chance as new means of power generation to face the increasing demand for electric energy . Among different kinds of renewable energy resources, solar energy has become one of the most favorable and attractive resources. Nowadays, solar energy-based PV is considered to be one of the most useful natural energy sources, which is widely used in many applications as it has the advantage of easy maintenance, pollution free and most widely distributed [2, 3]. Lately, the use of PV panel has grown consistently due to the following factors: enhancement of the PV efficiency and improvement in the industrialization technology. In recent years, a great number of PV modules are inserted into the utility grid in many countries. The use of PV systems has become a current way of power generation due to its environmental credentials, well-known technology, free energy source, little maintenance, increase in efficiency, reduction in costs as well as generation of electricity without moveable parts and a long life span compared to other renewable sources . Solar energy system can be converted immediately into electricity using PV panels through the photovoltaic effect. But the conversion efficiency is low and the cost of power generated is comparatively high. PV generation has many advantages such as it has low fuel costs, does not produce pollution, requires little maintenance, and PV system has more other features . PV applications can be divided into two combinations: stand-alone and grid-connected energy systems. Stand-alone energy systems require a battery bank to store the PV energy; this is suitable for low-power applications. Moreover, grid-connected PV energy systems do not require battery banks; they are restored usually in high-power applications . PV device is a power system designed to supply applicable power by means of photovoltaic cells. It consists of several components, including solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity, an inverter to change the electric current from DC–AC, as well as mounting, cabling and other electrical parts to set up a working system.
Generally, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a technique that is used with PV solar systems to maximize power extraction under any environmental conditions. Several MPPT algorithms have been developed for use in PV systems to reach the MPP, ranging from simple to more complex algorithms depending on the weather conditions and the application . The main task of the MPPT is to extract maximum output power from the PV module under different radiation and temperature conditions. Till now, various MPPT algorithms have been developed in the literature to increase the efficiency of the PV system and to satisfy the optimal MPPT. These algorithms vary in different aspects like tracking speed, cost and hardware required for implementation and application. Generally, most known MPPT methods available are perturb and observe (P&O), fractional open-circuit voltage (FOCV), fractional short-circuit current (FSCC), incremental conductance (INC), artificial neural networks (ANN), fuzzy logic (FL) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) [9, 10, 11, 12].
In last few years, artificial intelligence is gaining popularity to track maximum power point (MPP). Artificial neural network (ANN) is one of them. The major advantage of this algorithm is that it does not need to solve the complex mathematical relation between power output, solar irradiance, solar temperature and total resistance plus the outputs are obtained in a very less time with no oscillations at all. The uses of neural network in the industrial electronics have been increased. Recently, its application in various fields is increasing rapidly. The science of artificial neural network depends on the neuron .
Among all the above-mentioned algorithms, the perturb and observe (P&O) and the incremental conductance (INC) are executed and evaluated for MPPT because of their easy implementation, less time to track the MPP and different other economic reasons.
In this study, the performance of solar module at various environmental conditions such as solar temperature and solar irradiance is analyzed. The main contribution of this paper is implementation of the P&O and incremental conductance (INC) algorithms in MATLAB/Simulink program and, also, determination of which of these two techniques is the most suitable for MPPT to establish an optimal algorithm. The remainder of this paper is organized after Introduction for easy presentation as follows: The conventional PV models are addressed in Sect. 2. Section 3 demonstrates the implementation of different MPPT control algorithms. Simulation results for the proposed model using MATLAB/Simulink program are discussed in Sect. 4. Finally, brief conclusions are drawn in the last section.
2 PV modeling system
The two most prevalent models of PV modules are the single-diode and the double-diode models. In order to design a model of the solar panel accurately, we can use double-diode model. In this paper, the single-diode model is used because of its simplicity and accuracy.
3 MPPT implementation control techniques
In general, the MPPT is an electronic device inserted between the PV generator and its load. It aims to keep the working point of the system as close to the MPP. The MPPT has nonlinear characteristic of solar PV module. It has one maximum power point which depends on irradiation intensity and cell temperature. However, it is requisite to track continuously the MPP to maximize the output power from a PV device . The efficiency of a solar panel is very low. In order to improve the efficiency of the solar panel, MPPT is used. There are different algorithms that are used to control the MPPT. The algorithms that are most commonly used are the P&O and INC methods which are presented in this study.
3.1 P&O MPPT algorithm
3.2 INC MPPT algorithm
The PV generator output is required to contain a DC–DC converter to set the solar modules output voltage at the desired value in order to track the MPP. The power converters are the devices widely used in many industrial applications. The three topologies which are more popular are the buck, boost and buck–boost power converters. These topologies have several properties depending on the connection between their devices. In this paper, the boost converter topology is used because its free-wheeling diode can be used for blocking reverse current and it efficiently amplifies PV array output voltage to higher value and is controlled by pulse width modulation (PWM) switch.
4 Simulation analysis, results and discussion
4.1 Results of PV side for P&O algorithm
4.2 Results of grid side for P&O algorithm
4.3 Results of PV side for INC algorithm
4.4 Results of grid side for INC algorithm
This paper presents a grid-connected PV system at low distribution voltage, suitable for residential, industrial and small customer applications. Also, the MPPT techniques are implemented using incremental conductance (INC) and perturb and observe (P&O) with boost converter topology. Simulation results with MATLAB/Simulink program show the PV side and grid side performance with time and irradiance variation. INC algorithm tracks rapidly changing irradiation conditions more accurately than P&O method. In P&O method, the voltage never actually reaches an exact value but perturbs around the MPP. So, the INC method reaches the MPP faster and better than P&O because of not have drifting problem and it was the most efficient, at rapidly changing conditions.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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