Endophytic bacteria mediated anti-autophagy and induced catalase, β-1,3-glucanases gene in paddy after infection with pathogen Pyricularia grisea

  • Yachana JhaEmail author
Research Article


Endophytic bacteria inhabiting in plant root and facilitate the plant growth and health. Among 28 isolates, two isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomanas pseudoalcaligenes were selected to evaluate their ability as a biological agent against fungal pathogen Pyricularia grisea responsible for fungal blast in paddy. The paddy plants were inoculated with these isolates during the initial stage of growth and latter infected with fungal pathogen under greenhouse condition. The observation showed that, the two endophytic isolates were able to activate phenolics and flavonoids production and induction of PR proteins like enzymes β-1,3-glucanase and catalase in paddy even in absence of pathogen and when such plant infected by fungal pathogen like Pyricularia grisea, it showed more resistant against it. Production of such enzymes due to endophytic bacteria resulted in reduction of its autophagy dependent cell death as reduced red fluoroscence in bacterized plant cell, observed under fluorescence microscope and also induction of β-1,3-glucanase and catalase gene in paddy. Uses of such beneficial bacteria in diverse agro-ecological system can be broadly use to develop pre-formed defence activation to develop resistance against broad range of pathogen in important crops.


Autophagy dependent cell death Biotic stress β-1,3-glucanase Catalase Endophytic bacteria Gene induction Paddy 


  1. Bassham DC, Laporte Marianne, Marty Francis, Moriyasu Yuji, Ohsumi Yoshinori, Olsen Laura J, Yoshimoto Kohki (2006) Autophagy in development and stress responses of plants. Autophagy 2:2–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benhamou N, Gagn´e S, Quere DL, Dehbi L (2000) Bacterial mediated induced resistance in cucumber: Beneficial effect of the endophytic bacterium Serratiaplymuthica on the protection against infection by Pythiumultimum. Phytopathology 90:45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Choudhary DK, Prakash A, Johri BN (2008) Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants: mechanism of action. Indian J Microbiol 47(4):289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Doty SL (2016) Plant–microbe symbiotic interactions. Plant Mol Biol 90:535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Etminani F, Harighi B (2018) Isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria with plant growth promoting activity and biocontrol potential from wild pistachio trees. Plant Pathol J 34(3):208–217Google Scholar
  6. Ildikó M, Georg N, Zsolt B, Gábor Makara (1999) Muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors are present and increase intracellular calcium in adult rat anterior pituitary gland. Brain Res Bull 48:449–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jeffries P, Gianinazzi S, Perotto S, Turnau K, Barea JM (2003) The contribution of arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi in sustainable maintenance of plant health and soil fertility. Biol Fertil Soils 37:1–16Google Scholar
  8. Jha Y, Subramanian RB (2014) Under saline stress plant growth promoting bacteria affect growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant activities in paddy. Int J Agric Environ Biotechnol 7:489–497Google Scholar
  9. Jha Y, Subramanian RB, Patel S (2011) Endophytic bacteria induced enzymes against M. grisea in O. sativa under biotic stress. AJBAS 3:136–146Google Scholar
  10. Justyna M, Kamil K, Anna K (2014) Flavonoids as important molecules of plant interactions with the environment. Molecules 19:16240–16265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kanazawa T, Taneike I, Akaishi R (2004) Amino acids and insulin control autophagic proteolysis through different signaling pathways in relation to mTOR in isolated rat hepatocytes. J Biol Chem 279:8452–8459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kaur C, Kapoor HC (2002) Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Asian vegetables. Int J Food Sci Technol 37:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kavitha K, Nakkeeran S, Chandrasekar G (2012) Rhizobacterial-mediated induction of defense enzymes to enhance the resistance of turmeric (Curcuma longa L) to Pythium aphanidermatum causing rhizome rot. Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 45:199–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kawai R, Igarashi K, Yoshida M, Kitaoka M, Samejima M (2006) Hydrolysis of beta-1,3/1,6-glucan by glycoside hydrolase family 16 endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 71(6):898–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Laluk K, Mengiste T (2010) Necrotroph attacks on plants: wanton destruction or covert extortion? Arabidopsis Book Am Soc Plant Biol 8:e0136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. M’Piga P, Belanger RR, Paulitz TC, Benhamou N (1997) Increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici in tomato plants treated with the endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 63–28. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 50:301–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mandal SM, Chakraborty D, Dey S (2010) Phenolic acids act as signaling molecules in plant-microbe symbioses. Plant Signal Behav 5(4):359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mohammadi M, Kazemi H (2002) Changes in peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in susceptible and resistant wheat heads inoculated with Fusarium graminearum and induced resistance. Plant Sci 162:491–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pan SQ, Ye XS, Kuc J (1991) Association of b-1,3-glucanase activity and isoform pattern with systemic resistance to blue mould in tobacco induced by stem injection with Perenosporatubacina or leaf inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 39:25–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ramalingam R, In-Jung L (2013) Ameliorative effects of spermine against osmotic stress through antioxidants and abscisic acid changes in soybean pods and seeds. Acta Physiol Plant 35:263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ramamoorthy V, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R (2002) Induction of defense related protein in tomato roots treated with Pseudomonas fluorescent Pf1 and Fusariumoxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici. Plant Soil 239:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ramos Solano B, BarriusoMaicas J, Pereyra de la Iglesia MT, Domenech J, Gutierrez Manero FJ (2008) Systemic disease protection elicited by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains: relationship between metabolic responses, systemic disease protection, and biotic elicitors. Phytopathology 98:451–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rasool S, Ahmad A, Siddiqi TO, Ahmad P (2013) Changes in growth, lipid peroxidation and some key antioxidant enzymes in chickpea genotypes under salt stress. Acta Physiol Plant 35:1039–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Redfern J, Kinninmonth M, Burdass D, Verran J (2014) Using soxhlet ethanol extraction to produce and test plant material (essential oils) for their antimicrobial properties. J MicrobiolBiol Educ 15(1):45–46Google Scholar
  25. Rojas CM, Senthil-Kumar M, Tzin V, Mysore KS (2014) Regulation of primary plant metabolism during plant-pathogen interactions and its contribution to plant defense. Front Plant Sci 5:17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ryan PR, Germaine K, Franks A, Ryan DJ, Dowling DN (2008) Bacterial endophytes: recent developments and applications. FEMS Microbiol Lett 278:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sambrook J, Fritschi EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Sanevas N, Sunohara Y, Matsumoto H (2007) Characterization of reactive oxygen species-involved oxidative damage in Hapalosiphon species crude extract-treated wheat and onion roots. Weed Biol Manag 7:172–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Savatin DV, Gramegna G, Modesti V, Cervone F (2014) Wounding in the plant tissue: the defense of a dangerous passage. Front Plant Sci 5:470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Singh PP, Shin YC, Park CS, Chung YR (1999) Biological control of fusarium wilts of cucumber by chitinolytic bacteria. Phytopathology 89:92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Su Y, Guo J, Ling H, Chen S, Wang S (2014) Isolation of a novel peroxisomal catalase gene from sugarcane, which is responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses. PLoS One 9(1):e84426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Torres M, Palomares O, Quiralte J, Pauli G, Rodríguez R, Villalba M (2015) An Enzymatically Active β-1,3-glucanase from ash pollen with allergenic properties: a Particular Member in the Oleaceae family. PLoS One 10(7):e0133066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Umamaheswari A, Pradhan D, Hemanthkumar M (2010) Identification of potential leptospira phospho heptose isomerase inhibitors through virtual high throughput screening. Genom Proteom Bioinform 8:246–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Van Loon LC, Rep M, Pieterse CM (2006) Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants. Annu Rev Phytopathol 44:135–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Phytopathological Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.N. V. Patel College of Pure & Applied Sciences, S. P. UniversityAnandIndia

Personalised recommendations