Advertisement

Effect of Zr on undissolved phases and carbide precipitation in Ti microalloyed low-carbon steel

  • Peng-cheng Liu
  • Jian-chun CaoEmail author
  • Shu-biao Yin
  • Yin-hui Yang
  • Peng Gao
Original Paper
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

The undissolved phases and carbide precipitation in Ti and Ti–Zr microalloyed low-carbon steels were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. At 1225 °C, the replacement of Ti by Zr formed Zr2CS and (Zr, Ti)N (the Ti/Zr atomic ratio is 0.11) and reduced the consumption of Ti. At 925 °C, it was identified that TiC phases were precipitated at first and Zr was incorporated into the TiC lattice in the subsequent precipitation process, which promoted the precipitation of titanium carbide. The calculation of the interaction coefficient between Ti, C, N and Zr showed that Zr reduced the activity of Ti and C and increased the activity of N in the iron matrix. Therefore, with the addition of Zr, the solubility of Ti was increased, and the consumption of Ti was reduced at high temperature in Ti microalloyed low-carbon steel. The thermodynamic calculation of carbide precipitation transformation showed that the replacement of Ti by Zr increased the nucleation driving force and the nucleation rate of titanium carbide, while the critical core size and the critical nuclear energy were reduced. As the holding time was extended, the Zr/Ti atomic ratio increased and the size of the precipitates also increased. When the Zr/Ti atomic ratio reached a certain level, the size of the precipitates did not increase with further increase in atomic ratio. When the Zr/Ti atomic ratio in (Ti, Zr)C was 0.05–0.17, (Ti, Zr)C was the most stable carbide and the easiest to nucleate at 925 °C. There was more of the (Ti, Zr)C phase than TiC at 925 °C after 50 and 100 s, and the time to complete the coarsening behavior of (Ti, Zr)C was shorter than that of TiC.

Keywords

Ti–Zr microalloyed steel Undissolved phase Carbide precipitation Zirconium Thermodynamics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51761019) and the National Key R & D Program of China (Nos. 2017YFB0304700 and 2017YFB0304701).

References

  1. [1]
    Z.Y. Zhang, J.C. Cao, Z.H. Zhong, X.L. Zhou, W. Chen, Y.H. Yang, J. Iron Steel Res. Int. 24 (2017) 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Q.L. Yong, Z.Y. Zhang, X.J. Sun, J.C. Cao, Z.D. Li, J. Iron Steel Res. Int. 24 (2017) 973–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    A. Karmakar, S. Mukherjee, S. Kundu, D. Srivastava, R. Mitra, D. Chakrabarti, Mater. Charact. 132 (2017) 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    P. Gong, E.J. Palmiere, W.M. Rainforth, Mater. Charact. 124 (2017) 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. Dong, C. Li, C. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Yu, H.J. Li, Y.C, Liu, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 705 (2017) 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    P. Gong, E.J. Palmiere, W.M. Rainforth, Acta Mater. 119 (2016) 43–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    A. Karmakar, S. Biswas, S. Mukherjee, D. Chakrabarti, V. Kumar, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 690 (2017) 158–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    J. Chen, M.Y. Lv, S. Tang, Z.Y. Liu, G.D. Wang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 594 (2014) 389–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Z.W. Peng, L.J. Li, J.X. Gao, X.D. Huo, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 657 (2016) 413–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Y. Han, J. Shi, L. Xu, W.Q. Cao, H. Dong, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 553 (2012) 192–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Y. Xu, W. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Yi, Z.Y. Liu, Mater. Lett. 139 (2015) 177–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    C.Y. Chen, J.R. Yang, C.C. Chen, S.F. Chen, Mater. Charact. 114 (2016) 18–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    A. Quispe, S.F. Medina, M. Gómez, J.I. Chaves, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 447 (2007) 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    W.B. Pearson, P. Villars, L.D. Calvert, Pearson's Handbook of Crystallographic Data for Intermetallic Phases, American Society for Metals, 1985.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    J.H. Jang, Y.U. Heo, C.H. Lee, D.W. Suh, Mater. Sci. Technol. 29 (2013) 309–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    M. Balcerzak, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 42 (2017) 23698–23707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    D. Lee, J.K. Kim, S. Lee, K. Lee, B.C. De Cooman, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 706 (2017) 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    I. Timokhina, M.K. Miller, J.T. Wang, H. Beladi, P. Cizek, P.D. Hodgson, Mater. Des. 111 (2016) 222–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Z.Q. Wang, H. Zhang, C.H. Guo, Z. Leng, Z.G. Yang, X.J. Sun, C.F. Yao, Z.G. Zhang, F.C. Jiang, Mater. Des. 109 (2016) 361–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    L. Cheng, Q.W. Cai, B.S. Xie, Z. Ning, X.C. Zhou, G.S. Li, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 651 (2016) 185–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    A.M. Guo, S.R. Li, J. Guo, P.H. Li, Q.F. Ding, K.M. Wu, X.L. He, Mater. Charact. 59 (2008) 134–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    V.B. Trindade, R.S.T. Mello, J.C. Payão, R.P.R. Paranhos, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 15 (2006) 284–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    K. Zhu, J. Yang, R.Z. Wang, Baosteel Technical Research 6 (2012) No. 2, 39–43.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Q.L. Yong, Secondary phases in steel, Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing, 2006.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    F.M. Wang, X.P. Li, Q.Y. Han, N.X. Zhang, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 28 (1997) 109–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    T.N. Baker, Mater. Sci. Technol. 31 (2015) 265–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    L. Zhang, L.M. Yu, Y.C. Liu, C.X. Liu, H.J. Li, J.F. Wu, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 695 (2017) 66–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Y.B. Wang, L.M. Peng, Y.J. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y.X. Wang, Y.B. Huang, W.J. Ding, Comput. Mater. Sci. 100 (2015) 166–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Z.Y. Zhang, X.J. Sun, Z.Q. Wang, Z.D. Li, Q.L. Yong, G.D. Wang, Mater. Lett. 159 (2015) 249–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    X.P. Mao, Titanium microalloyed steel, Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing, 2016.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peng-cheng Liu
    • 1
  • Jian-chun Cao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shu-biao Yin
    • 2
  • Yin-hui Yang
    • 1
  • Peng Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Materials Science and EngineeringKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy EngineeringKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations