Reduction of chromium ore by recycled silicon cutting sludge waste with carbon addition
- 40 Downloads
A basic study on the feasibility of producing ferrochrome (silicon) alloys using Si sludge waste collected from the silicon ingot cutting process was carried out, and the effects of the addition of carbon components, reaction time, and reaction temperature on the silicothermic reduction of chromium ore by Si sludge were studied. The cordierite (Mg2Al4Si5O18) phase was generated in the slag, and the Fe–Cr(–Si)–C alloy was formed by the silicothermic reduction. Moreover, the addition of carbon powder lowered the reduction initiating temperature, and the reduction ratio based on the oxygen content was evaluated at around 68–88% at 1573 K, which increased with an increase in carbon. However, it was difficult to find a significant difference in the reduction behavior in response to increasing the holding time. The reduced ferrochrome (Fe–Cr) metal alloy droplets coalesced more intensively with an increase in reduction temperature, and for manufacturing the Fe–Cr alloy, it is estimated that a temperature of 1773 K or higher is required for good separation of the slag and the metal. Furthermore, the metallization ratio was defined, and higher values are evaluated for Fe than for Cr.
KeywordsChromium ore Ferrochrome alloy Silicon sludge waste Silicothermic reduction Reduction ratio Metallization ratio
This study was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy (No. 20165020301180) and by the Global Scholarship Program for Foreign Graduate Students at Kookmin University in Korea.
- C.Y. Shih, S.H. Gau, C.C Kuo, C.Y. Huang, S.W. Kuo, J. Appl. Sci. Eng. 19 (2016) 75–82.Google Scholar
- W.F. Smith, Structure and properties of engineering alloys, 2nd ed., B.H. Han Trans., Bando Publishing Inc., Seoul, Korea, 1994.Google Scholar
- M. Sumitomo, T. Okada, Tekko-to-Goukingenso (I), in: H. Sawamura (Eds.), The 19th Committee on Steelmaking, The Japan Society for the Promotion Science, Seibundoshinkousha, Tokyo, Japan, 1971, pp. 289–345.Google Scholar
- S.A.C Hockaday, K. Bisaka, in: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Ferroalloys Congress Sustainable Future, Helsinki, Finland, 2010, pp. 367–376.Google Scholar
- C. Ugwuegbu, Innov. Syst. Des. Eng. 3 (2012) 48–54.Google Scholar
- G. Kapure, V. Tathavadkar, C.B. Rao, S.M. Rao, K.S. Raju, in: Proceedings of The Twelfth International Ferroalloys Congress Sustainable Future, Helsinki, Finland, 2010, pp. 293–301Google Scholar
- J.H. Kim, E.J. Jung, G.G. Lee, W.G. Jung, S.J. Yu, Y.C. Chang, Korean J. Mater. Res. 27 (2017) 263–269.Google Scholar
- Center for Research in Computational Thermochemistry, Montreal, Canada, FactSage 7.0, http://www.factsage.com (2016-10-01).
- P.W. Han, P.X. Chen, S.J. Chu, L.B. Liu, R. Chen, in: Proceeding of the Fourteenth International Ferroalloys Congress, Infacon XIV, Kiev, Ukraine, 2015, pp. 422–428.Google Scholar
- JCPDS (International Centre of Diffraction Data) Card No. 22-1107 (1996)Google Scholar
- Y. Xiao, C. Schuffeneger, M. Reuter, L. Holappa, T. Seppälä, in: Proceeding of Tenth International Ferroalloys Congress, Infacon X, Cape Town, South Africa, 2004, pp. 26–35.Google Scholar
- JCPDS (International Centre of Diffraction Data) Card No. 89-1487 (1996)Google Scholar