Advertisement

Journal of Bionic Engineering

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 730–741 | Cite as

Morphological Characterization and Hydrodynamic Behavior of Shortfin Mako Shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) Dorsal Fin Denticles

  • Fernandez-Waid Patricia
  • Diez Guzman
  • Bidaguren Iñigo
  • Izagirre Urtzi
  • Blanco Jesus Maria
  • Soto ManuEmail author
Article

Abstract

The shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) is one of the fastest marine fishes, reaching speeds of up to 70 km·h−1. Their speed is related to the skin surface design composed of dermal denticles. Denticles vary in size and shape according to placement on the body and minimize turbulence around the body. The objective of this study is to analyze the interaction between seawater flow and denticles on the dorsal fin. High-resolution microscopy (scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy) were used to measure defined parts of the dermal denticles. These measurements, along with ratios based on length-to-width define three morphologies (rounded, semi-rounded, long) that were 3D reconstructed. Computational fluid dynamics simulated fluid passage over reconstructed denticles and describe hydrodynamic efficiency under different conditions. An increase in angle of inclination produced a relevant increase in the drag coefficient, especially for high velocity inlets. The lowest drag coefficient values were found in long and semi-rounded, followed by rounded morphologies. The hydrodynamic behavior of shark skin demonstrates a relation to the morphological characteristics of dermal denticles on the dorsal fin. It is concluded that the best hydroefficiency relies on the rounded morphology and may serve to design hydrodynamically efficient surfaces or manmade assemblies.

Keywords

denticles hydrodynamic mako shark computational fluid dynamics 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Alberti M, Marzluff J M, Shulenberger E, Bradley G, Ryan C Zumbrunnen C. Integrating humans into ecology: Opportunities and challenges for studying urban ecosystems. BioScience, 2003, 53, 1169–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Schrey A W, Heist E J. Microsatellite analysis of population structure in the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2003, 60, 670–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Compagno L J V. Sharks of the World: an Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date, Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2001.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Babcock E A, Hideki N. Data collection, research, and assessment efforts for pelagic sharks by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas. In Camhi M D, Pikitch E K, Babcock E A eds., Sharks of the Open Ocean: Biology, Fisheries and Conservation, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 2008, 472–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Magin C M, Cooper S P, Brennan A B. Non-toxic antifouling strategies. Materials Today, 2010, 13, 36–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Naresh M D, Arumugam V, Sanjeevi R. Mechanical behavior of shark skin. Journal of Biosciences, 1997, 22, 431–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Harder W. Anatomy of Fishes, Schweizerart’sche. Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany, 1976, 612.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Miyake T, Vaglia J L, Taylor L H, Hall B K. Development of dermal denticles in skates (Chondrichthyes, Batoidea): patterning and cellular differentiation. Journal of Morphology, 1999, 241, 61–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Lingham—Soliar T. Dorsal fin in the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias: A dynamic stabilizer for fast swimming. Journal of Morphology, 2005, 263, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Sire J Y, Arnulf I. The development of squamation in four teleostean fishes with a survey of the literature. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 1990, 37, 133–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Lang A, Motta P, Habegger M L, Hueter R, Afroz F. Shark skin separation control mechanisms. Marine Technology Society Journal, 2011, 45, 208–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Motta P, Habegger M L, Lang A, Hueter R, Davis J. Scale morphology and flexibility in the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus and the blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus. Journal of Morphology, 2012, 273, 1096–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Diez G, Soto M, Blanco J M. Biological characterization of the skin of shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus and preliminary study of the hydrodynamic behaviour through computational fluid dynamics. Journal of Fish Biology, 2015, 87, 123–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Motta P J. Anatomy and functional morphology of dermal collagen fibers in sharks. Copeia, 1977, 3, 454–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Wainwright S A, Vosburgh F, Hebrank J H. Shark skin: Function in locomotion. Science, 1978, 202, 747–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Southall E J, Sims D W. Shark skin: A function in feeding. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B, 2003, 270, 47–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Lee M. Remarkable Natural Material Surfaces and Their Engineering Potential. Springer, New York, USA, 2014, 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Zhao D, Tian Q, Wang M, Jin Y. Study on the hydrophobic property of shark-skin-inspired micro-riblets. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2014, 11, 296–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Bajsanski I, Stojakovic V, Tepavcevic B, Jovanovic M, Mitov D. An application of the shark skin denticle geometry for windbreak fence design and fabrication. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2017, 14, 579–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Bechert D W, Bruse M, Hage W, van der Hoeven J G T, Hoppe G. Experiments on drag reducing surfaces and their optimization with an adjustable geometry. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1997, 338, 59–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Lang A W, Bradshaw M T, Smith J A, Wheelus J N, Motta P J, Habegger M L, Hueter R E. Movable shark scales act as a passive dynamic micro-roughness to control flow separation. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 2014, 9, 036017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Du Clos K T, Lang A, Devey S, Motta P J, Habegger M L, Gemmell B J. Passive bristling of mako shark scales in reversing flows. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2018, 15,  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2018.0473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Domel A G, Weaver J C, Saadat M, Bertoldi K, Lauder G V. Hydrodynamic properties of biomimetic shark skin: Effect of denticle size and swimming speed. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 2018, 13, 056014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Miyazaki M, Hirai Y, Moriya H, Shimomura M. Biomimetic riblets inspired by sharkskin denticles: Digitizing, modeling and flow simulation. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2018, 15, 999–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Klimley P A, Beavers S C, Curtis T H, Jorgensen S J. Movements and swimming behavior of three species of sharks in La Jolla Canyon, California. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 2002, 63, 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Heller V. Scale effects in physical hydraulic engineering models. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 2011, 49, 293–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Giorgi G, Ringwood J. Consistency of viscous drag identification tests for wave energy applications. Proceedings of the 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, Cork, Ireland, 2017.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Gazzola M, Argentina M, Mahadevan L. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion. Nature Physics, 2014, 10, 758–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Lauder G V, Wainwright D K, Domel A G, Weaver J C, Wen L, Bertoldi K. Structure, biomimetics, and fluid dynamics of fish skin surfaces. Physical Review Fluids, 2016, 1, 060502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Mello W C, de Carvalho J J, Brito P M M. Microstructural morphology in early dermal denticles of hammerhead sharks (Elasmobranchii: Sphyrnidae) and related taxa. Acta Zoologica, 2013, 94, 147–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Laranjeira M E, Guimaraes J P, Amorim A F, Rotundo M, Rici R E G, Mari R B. Ultrastructure of dermal denticles in sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii) (Elasmobranchii, Carcharhinidae). Microscopy Research and Technique, 2015, 78, 859–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Dean B, Bhushan B. Shark-skin surfaces for fluid-drag reduction in turbulent flow: A review. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 2010, 368, 4775–4806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Raayai-Ardakani S, McKinley G H. Drag reduction using wrinkled surfaces in high Reynolds number laminar boundary layer flows. Physics of Fluids, 2017, 29, 093605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Gilligan J J, Otway N M. Comparison of dorsal and pectoral fin denticles for grey nurse, great white, and six whaler sharks from east Australian waters. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 2011, 144, 66–82.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Oeffner J, Lauder G V. The hydrodynamic function of shark skin and two biomimetic applications. Journal of Experimental Biology, 2012, 215, 785–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Bushnell D M, Moore K J. Drag reduction in nature. Annual Review Fluid Mechanics, 1991, 23, 65–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Lang A, Habegger M L, Motta P. Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology: Shark Skin Drag Reduction, Springer, New York, USA, 2012, 2395–2400.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Bruse M, und Bechert D W, und van der Hoeven, J G Th, und Hage W, und Hoppe G. Experiments with conventional and with novel adjustable drag-reducing surfaces. Near-Wall Turbulent Flows, 1993, 719–738.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Liu Z Y, Song B W, Hu H B, Huang Q G, Huang M M. Experiment investigation on the drag-reduction characteristics above riblet surface in wind tunnel. Journal of Experimental Mechanics, 2008, 23, 469–474. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Bechert D W, Bruse M, Hage W, Meyer R. Fluid mechanics of biological surfaces and their technological application. Naturwissenschaften, 2000, 87, 157–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Chen H W, Zhang X, Ma L X, Che D, Zhang D Y, Sudarshan T S. Investigation on large-area fabrication of vivid shark skin with superior surface functions. Applied Surface Science. 2014, 316, 124–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Wen L, Weaver J C, Thornycroft P J M, Lauder G V. Hydrodynamic function of biomimetic shark skin: Effect of denticle pattern and spacing. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 2015, 10, 066010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Jilin University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernandez-Waid Patricia
    • 1
  • Diez Guzman
    • 2
  • Bidaguren Iñigo
    • 3
  • Izagirre Urtzi
    • 1
  • Blanco Jesus Maria
    • 3
  • Soto Manu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, Research Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PiE-UPV/EHU)University of the Basque CountryBizkaiaSpain
  2. 2.Marine Research DivisionAZTIBizkaiaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, School of Engineering(UPV/EHU) University of the Basque CountryBilbao, BizkaiaSpain

Personalised recommendations