Survey and conventional management methods of bacterial wilt disease in open fields and greenhouses in Tanzania
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A study was conducted from January to February 2018 to determine bacterial wilt disease (BWD) incidence and severity in open-field and greenhouse environments in twelve tomato growing districts in Tanzania. About 220 farmers were interviewed to assess their knowledge on BWD by using a semi structured questionnaire. Results indicated significant (p < 0.05) difference of BWD incidence and severity among districts. Similarly, BWD incidence and severity were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in greenhouses than in the open field environments implying that BWD is a major challenge in tomato under greenhouse than in open-field environments. Most of the farmers were not certain about BWD symptomology and management. Majority (>80% of 220 respondents) of farmers could not identify sources of BWD in environment and do not adhere to sanitation measures recommended for greenhouse tomato production. 90% of the interviewed famers ventured into greenhouse tomato production by imitating from neighbors without technical guidance. To manage BWD, majority (70%) of farmers use chemicals which they reported as ineffective, 13% use botanical, 10% do crop rotation which was reported to be not practical because of land scarcity and long time that Ralstonia solanacearum can survive. Rest (7%) of farmers do not use any BWD management measure. There was no report of either use of disease resistant cultivars or biological control as a strategy for BWD management in the study area. There is therefore need to develop techniques for farmers to manage the BWD by exploring promising options such as use of effective botanical extracts.
KeywordsRalstonia solanacearum Soil –borne Incidence Severity
This study was funded by the German Academic Exchange Service Program (DAAD) through the In-country/In-Region Scholarship Programme Tanzania 2016 (grant number 91637162) and the Centre for Research, Agriculture Advancement, Teaching Excellence and Sustainability (CREATES) in Food and Nutrition Security (grant number 02090107-048-301-4001-P044-J01S01-C42) of the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST) for providing funds for this work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in study involving human participants, farmers in this respect were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual farmers included in the study.
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