Geographic spread and inter-annual evolution of populations of Trioza erytreae in the Iberian Peninsula
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Trioza erytreae per se is a major citrus pest, although its destructive power is much greater as a vector of the non-culturable bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter africanus’ causing the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide: the citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Following early detections of T. erytreae in mainland Europe, simultaneously in Portugal and Spain in 2014, its distributional range has rapidly increased, thus becoming a serious threat to the entire Mediterranean citrus industry. In 2018, one year after our latest survey, the situation has only worsened, with T. erytreae being around 200 km closer to key citrus growing areas in southern Portugal and Spain. Once T. erytreae invades a new area, the degree of severity of its attacks increases very quickly, which is indicative of its potential for invasiveness. We highlight that T. erytreae is currently spread and well established along the northwestern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, ranging from Cedeira in A Coruña (Spain) to Pontes/Setúbal in Portugal, covering approximately 600 km on a straight uninterrupted line. Implementation of further containment and control measures are critical to addressing this growing risk.
KeywordsHuanglongbing ‘Candidatus Liberibacter spp.’ Citrus spp. Spain Portugal
We wish to underscore again the key role played by Joseph-Marie Bové in initiating and thoroughly developing this topic until, unfortunately, leukaemia took away his life on June 2, 2016.
Financial support was provided by the research project ADI-PP.PEI.IDF201601.3, 80% of which is partly funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).
This study was funded by the research project “Desarrollo de estrategias para el manejo del HLB y sus psílidos vectores en los cítricos andaluces” (ADI-PP.PEI.IDF201601.3), 80% of which is partly funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and 20% by the Instituto de Investigación y Formación Agraria y Pesquera de Andalucía (IFAPA, Spain).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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