Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 101, Issue 4, pp 1133–1142 | Cite as

Etiology of leaf spot and fruit canker symptoms on stone fruits and nut trees in Iran

  • Sadegh Zarei
  • S. Mohsen Taghavi
  • Zia Banihashemi
  • Habiballah Hamzehzarghani
  • Ebrahim OsdaghiEmail author
Short Communication


During July 2015 to June 2017, 63 walnut and 94 stone fruit orchards were surveyed in Iran to identify and characterize the causal agent of a disease inducing leaf spot and fruit canker symptoms. Altogether, 189 Prunus spp. and 141 walnut samples (i.e. leaves, branches and fruits) were collected from 10 Provinces in northern, northwestern, central and southern Iran. Forty-three yellow-pigmented Gram-negative bacterial isolates were recovered from symptomatic plants. Only seven bacterial strains isolated from walnut in Mazandaran and Golestan Provinces were identified as X. arboricola pv. juglandis based on pathogenicity assays, specific PCRs, and multilocus sequence analysis. Based on the phenotypic features and phylogenetic analysis of gyrB gene sequences, strains isolated from stone fruit trees were identified as multiple Pantoea species (i.e. P. agglomerans, P. ananatis, P. vagans and P. pleuroti). None of these strains caused symptoms on Prunus spp. plantlets tested under greenhouse conditions. Although the occurrence of bacterial blight of walnut in Iran was ascertained using molecular-phylogenetic analysis, no evidence was obtained that the observed disease was the same as the bacterial spot and canker of stone fruits caused by X. arboricola pv. pruni in the country.


Bacterial blight of walnut Juglans regia MLSA Pantoea spp. Prunus spp. Xanthomonas arboricola 



This research was funded by Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards

The result of this work has not been published previously and is not under consideration elsewhere.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

42161_2019_283_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (791 kb)
Fig. S1 Agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products using the Xanthomonas- (a - b) and X. arboricola-specific (c) primers in this study. Primers X-ITS-F3j, X-ITS-F3k, X-ITS-F3c, X-ITS F3d/X-ITS-R2 (a) directed the amplification of the expected 254 bp DNA fragment in all the bacterial strain isolated from stone fruits and walnut trees. Whereas, primer pair Xc-lip-F2/Xc-lip-R2 (b) directed the amplification of the expected 777 bp DNA fragment only in the Xanthomonas arboricola strains isolated from walnut trees. X. arboricola-specific primer pair XarbQ-F/XarbQ-R directed the amplification of the expected 402 bp DNA fragment in all the X. arboricola strains isolated from walnut, however, either unspecific amplification or wrong sized fragment amplification were observed in the Pantoea spp. strains isolated from stone fruits (c). Lanes: M: 100 bp DNA Ladder, 1–5: X. arboricola strains isolated from walnut trees in Iran, 6–19: Pantoea spp. strains isolated from stone fruits, and 20: DNA-free control. (JPG 791 kb)


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Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Patologia Vegetale (S.I.Pa.V.) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Protection, College of AgricultureShiraz UniversityShirazIran

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