Phenolic compound degradation by Pseudomonas syringae phylogroup 2 strains
- 34 Downloads
It has recently been shown that Pseudomonas syringae strains pathogenic to woody hosts belonging to phylogroup (PG) 2 lack phenolic compound degradation pathways such as the beta-ketoadipate and protocatechuate pathways. The aim of this study was to analyse a selection of P. syringae PG 2 genomes, including those used previously to determine if they had other phenolic compound degradation pathways and to determine whether or not they were functional. Twenty-one publicly available genomes of PG 2 strains were analyzed. These strains had previously been isolated from both woody and herbaceous hosts. Phenolic degradation enzymes were present in 5 (23%) of the strains analysed, originating from both woody and herbaceous hosts. Hypothetical pathways were proposed to determine if catechol, anthranilate and benzoic acid were degraded by these strains. Both spectrophotometric and HPLC were used to determine phenolic compound degradation. The five strains with phenolic degradation enzymes were able to metabolize catechol, and HRI-W 7924 and MAFF 301072 could also metabolize anthranilate and benzoate, respectively. The study showed that even though some PG 2 strains lack the beta-ketoadipate and protocatechuate pathways, they still have phenolic compound degrading enzymes that may play a role in virulence.
KeywordsPseudomonas syringae Phenolic compounds Spectrophotometer HPLC-DAD
The Horticultural Knowledge Group (HORTGRO) and National Research Foundation (NRF) are acknowledged for funding this research. In addition, the Department of Food Science is acknowledged for HPLC analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest. No humans or animals were involved in the execution of this research. All authors have consented to the submission of this manuscript to the Journal of Plant Pathology.
- Caballo-Ponce E, van Dillewijm P, Wittich RM, Ramos C (2017) WHOP, a genomic region associated with woody hosts in the Pseudomonas syringae complex contributes to the virulence and fitness of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi in olive plants. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 30:113–126Google Scholar
- Green S, Studholme DJ, Laue BE, Dorati F, Lovell H, Arnold D, Cottrell JE, Bridgett S, Blaxter M, Huitema E, Thwaites R, Sharp PM, Jackson RW, Kamoun S (2010) Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum. PloS One 5:e10224CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Li D, Yan Y, Ping S, Chen M, Zhang W, Li L, Lin W, Geng L, Liu W, Lu W, Lin M (2010) Genome-wide investigation and functional characterization of the β-ketoadipate pathway in the nitrogen-fixing and root-associated bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501. BMC Microbiol 10:36CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mansfield J, Genin S, Magori S, Citovsky V, Sriariyanum M, Ronald P, Dow M, Verdier V, Beer SV, Machado MA, Toth I, Salmond G, Foster GD (2012) Top 10 plant pathogenic bacteria in molecular plant pathology. Mol Plant Pathol 13:614–629Google Scholar
- Nojiri H, Maeda K, Sekiguchi H, Urata M, Shintani M, Yoshida T, Habe H, Omori T (2002) Organization and transcriptional characterization of catechol degradation genes involved in carbazole degradation by Pseudomonas resinovorans strain CA10. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66:897–901CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rodríguez-Palenzuela P, Matas IM, Murillo J, López-Solanilla E, Bardaji L, Pérez-Martínez I, Rodríguez-Moskera ME, Penyalver R, López MM, Quesada JM (2010) Annotation and overview of the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 draft genome reveals the virulence gene complement of a tumour-inducing pathogen of woody hosts. Environ Microbiol 12:1604–1620PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van der Nest MA, Steenkamp ET, McTaggart AR, Trollip C, Godlonton T, Sauerman E, Roodt D, Naidoo K, Coetzee MP, Wilken PM, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD (2015) Saprophytic and pathogenic fungi in the Ceratocystidaceae differ in their ability to metabolize plant-derived sucrose. BMC Evol Biol 15:273CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar