Ochrobactrum ciceri mediated induction of defence genes and antifungal metabolites enhance the biocontrol efficacy for the management of Botrytis leaf blight of Lilium under protected conditions
- 29 Downloads
Biological control with bacterial bioagents is a cost-effective method for the management of foliar diseases of cut flowers under protected conditions. The antagonistic microflora in Lilium ecosystem was exploited and its potential against Botrytis cinerea was assessed for its management. However, the bacterial antagonist Ochrobactrum ciceri has not been explored for management of B. cinerea, a pathogen causing leaf blight of Lilium. In the present study, 42 bacterial antagonists were tested for their antifungal activity against B. cinerea. Among them, the growth of B. cinerea was suppressed up to 46% by O. ciceri (MM17) in vitro. GC/MS analysis of crude metabolites of O. ciceri (MM17) co-cultured with cell wall of B. cinerea produced four antifungal non-volatile metabolites when compared with the solely cultured bacterium. Similarly, gas chromatography/mass spectometry-thermal desorption (GC/MS-TD) analysis of the volatile metabolites of O. ciceri (MM17) indicated that the bacterium produced growth promoting compounds upon interaction with the cell wall of B. cinerea apart from the antibacterial compounds. However, no growth promoting compounds were produced when the bacterium was cultured separately. Further, qRT-PCR analysis revealed an increase in the expression profile of PAL (34.49 folds), PR 10 (4.02 folds) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (15.55 folds) transcripts when treated with O. ciceri (MM17), challenged against B. cinerea (SEL). Further, the efficacy of antagonist bacterial strains was assessed for the management of Botrytis leaf blight under protected conditions. Foliar application of O. ciceri (MM17) under protected conditions suppressed leaf blight by 77% and increased the stem yield. This study highlights the potential of O. ciceri (MM17) for the management of Lilium leaf blight under protected cultivation.
KeywordsLilium Botrytis Ochrobactrum Volatile compounds Non-volatile compounds Defence genes
The authors would like to give special thanks for the encouragement provided by Dr. V. G. Malathi, Dr. P. Renukadevi and Dr. T. C. K. Sugitha. The support provided by Professor and Head, Department of Plant Pathology and Dr. U. Sivakumar, The Dean, School of Post Graduate studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University are deeply acknowledged. The authors would also like to acknowledge DST FIST, UGC-SAP and ICAR for funding.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Statement of human and animal rights
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the any of the authors.
- Akram W, Anjum T (2011) Quantitative changes in defence system of tomato induced by two strains of Bacillus against Fusarium wilt. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 1:7–13Google Scholar
- Angelini RM, Rotolo C, Masiello M, Gerin D, Pollastro S, Faretra F (2014) Occurrence of fungicide resistance in populations of Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) on table grape and strawberry in southern Italy. Pest Manag Sci 70:1785–1796. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3711 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cano RJ, Borucki MK, Higby-Schweitzer M, Poinar HN, Poinar GO, Pollard KJ (1994) Bacillus DNA in fossil bees: an ancient symbiosis. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:2164–2167Google Scholar
- Cavalcanti ÉBVS (2014) Estudo fitoquímico e biológico dos frutos e raízes de Piper caldense C. DC. (Piperaceae). Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João PessoaGoogle Scholar
- Chakraborty BN, Chakraborty U, Saha A, Dey PL, Sunar K (2010) Molecular characterization of Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma harzianum isolated from soils of North Bengal based on rDNA markers and analysis of their PCR-RAPD profiles. Global Journal Of Biotechnology & Biochemistry 5:55–61Google Scholar
- Chen LJ, Yin YY, Sun SK, Sun J (2017) First report of a gray mold on Lilium cernuum Komar leaves caused by Botrytis cinerea in Liaoning province of China. J Plant Pathol 99(1):301Google Scholar
- Chilvers MI, Du Toit LJ (2006) Detection and identification of Botrytis species associated with neck rot, scape blight, and umbel blight of onion. Plant Health Prog. 113Google Scholar
- Datar VV, Mayee CD (1981) Assessment of loss in tomato yield due to early blight. Indian Phytopathol 34:191–195Google Scholar
- Dheepa R, Vinodkumar S, Renukadevi P, Nakkeeran S (2016) Phenotypic and molecular characterization of chrysanthemum white rust pathogen Puccinia horiana (Henn) and the effect of liquid based formulation of Bacillus spp. for the management of chrysanthemum white rust under protected cultivation. Biol Control 103:172–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2016.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984) Statistical procedures for agricultural research, 2 Edn. JohnWiley and Sons, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
- Gupta D, Kumar M (2017) Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial potential and GC–MS analysis of Camellia sinensis and Terminalia arjuna. Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 13:19–25Google Scholar
- Ham MS, Park YM, Sung HR, Sumayo M, Ryu CM, Park SH, Ghim SY (2009) Characterization of rhizobacteria isolated from family Solanaceae plants in Dokdo island. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol 37:110–117Google Scholar
- Hassan MN, Afghan S, ul HZ, Hafeez FY (2014) Biopesticide activity of sugarcane associated rhizobacteria: Ochrobactrum intermedium strain NH-5 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain NH-300 against red rot under field conditions. Phytopathol Mediterr:229–239Google Scholar
- Hou PF, Chen CY (2003) Early stages of infection of lily leaves by Botrytis elliptica and B. cinerea. Plant Pathol Bulletin 12:103–108Google Scholar
- Jayaraj J, Anand A, Muthukrishnan S (2004) Pathogenesis- related proteins and their roles in resistance to fungal pathogens. In: Punja ZK (ed) Fungal disease resistance in plants: biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetic engineering. Haworth Press, New York, pp 139–177Google Scholar
- Marrez D, Sultan Y (2016) Antifungal activity of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa against mycotoxigenic fungi. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 6:191–198. https://doi.org/10.7324/japs.2016.601130
- Okwu DE, Ighodaro BU (2009) GC-MS evaluation of the bioactive compounds and antibacterial activity of the oil fraction from the stem barks of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H. J Lam. International Journal of Drug Development and Research 1:117–125Google Scholar
- Onate-Sanchez L, Vicente-Carbojosa J (2008) DNA-free RNA isolation protocols for Arabidopsis thaliana, including seeds and siliques. BMC Research Notes 1:93. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-1-93.
- Rigotti S, Gindro K, Richter H, Viret O (2002) Characterization of molecular markers for specific and sensitive detection of Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. In strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) using PCR. FEMS Microbiol Lett 209:169–174Google Scholar
- Srinivasan GV, Sharanappa P, Leela NK, Sadashiva CT, Vijayan KK (2009) Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Leea indica (Burm. F.) Merr. Flowers. Indian Journal of Natural Product and Resources 8(5):488–493Google Scholar
- Van Baarlen P, Woltering EJ, Staats M, Van Kan JA (2007) Histochemical and genetic analysis of host and non-host interactions of Arabidopsis with three Botrytis species: an important role for cell death control. Mol Plant Pathol 8:41–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1364-3703.2006.00367.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Van den Ende JE, Pennock-Vos MG, Bastiaansen C, Koster ATJ, Van der Meer LJ (2000) BoWaS: a weather-based warning system for the control of Botrytis blight in lily. Acta Hortic (519):215–220Google Scholar
- White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 315–322Google Scholar