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Photo-polymerized trifunctional acrylate resin/magnesium hydroxide fluids/cotton fabric composites with enhancing mechanical and moisture barrier properties

  • Yi Qin
  • Qiao Yu
  • Xianze YinEmail author
  • Yingshan Zhou
  • Jin Xu
  • Luoxin Wang
  • Hua Wang
  • Zhenming Chen
Original Research
  • 92 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper, a facile and environmentally friendly approach was used to prepare acrylate resin-based cotton fabric composites via adding reactive Mg (OH)2 fluids (MHFs) into trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TPT) monomer followed by coating on the cotton fabrics by photo-polymerization. The morphology, thermal stability, rheological behavior, and mechanical properties of polymer composites are systematically characterized by various technologies. Mechanical test results demonstrates that tensile strength and young’s modulus of the polymer composites are as high as 46 MPa and 1440.27 MPa, respectively, which is 3.5 and 9.1 times that of polymer composite in the absent of MHFs meanwhile without sacrificing the toughness. Moreover, it is amazingly found that the addition of MHFs can effectively reduce water vapor transmission rate of composite. Herein, these advantages of MHFs can be easily applied as encapsulation layer in the field of smart cotton fabric and electrical device.

Graphical abstract

The addition of reactive Mg(OH)2 fluids into trifunctional acrylate could achieve excellent mechanical and moisture barrier properties of polymer composite.

Keywords

Magnesium hydroxide Photo-polymerization Composites Stability Cotton fabric 

1 Introduction

Magnesium hydroxide (MH) has attracted considerable interests due to its many advantages of non-toxic, smoke-proof, anti-droplet, and high processable temperature [1, 2]. In addition, the huge surface area of nano-sized MH makes it an alternative halogen-free flame retardant. However, due to the low flame retardant efficiency of magnesium hydroxide, much higher content of MH is usually required to achieve good flame retardant effect in polymer composites. Moreover, MH are usually easy to form bigger agglomerates in the polymer matrix, and its poor interface compatibility with polymer matrix results in deterioration of the physical and mechanical properties of the composite [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. Based on above analysis, it is very challenging to increase the flame retardant effect and keep good mechanical properties of composites. Many chemical and physical approaches are utilized to decorate the particles surface for improving the dispersion and interaction between MH and the polymer matrix [8, 9, 10, 11]. However, these modified particles made by these methods behave solid-like without solvent and do not undergo a microscopic solid-to-liquid transition below 100 °C.

In 2005, Giannilis et al. firstly grafted quaternized silane coupling agent on the surface of SiO2 and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, and then ion exchanged with polyoxyethylene-functionalized organic long chain to obtain organic/inorganic liquid-like nanofluids [12]. This hybrid material macroscopically exhibits liquid-like behavior and has low viscosity at room temperature. This new kind of nanoparticles, defined as solvent-free nanofluids, which not only enhance the processability of nanoparticles, but also impart novel functionalities to nanoparticles, has recently attracted the interest of researchers around the world [13]. Until now, a series of fluids as filler have been synthesized and used to greatly improve the performance of composite. Zheng’ group et al. found a facile and green way to synthesize a series of liquid-like hybrid materials through surface grafting a short ion or nonionic oligomer such as graphene@ZnO [14], graphene@Fe3O4 [15], and MWCNT@Au [16] fluids, which achieve a homogeneous dispersion and compatibility in polymer. Yin et al. synthesized a series of SiO2 fluids [17] and halloysite fluids [18] (ion exchange reaction), graphene@SiO2 fluids [19] and CB fluids [20] (hydrogen bonding interaction) with liquid-like behavior at room temperature meantime using them as fillers to fabricate polymer composites for introducing the simultaneous reinforcement and plasticization effect. However, these nanofluids without reactive groups cannot serve as reactive components and participate in a chemical reactions during the polymerization or blending processes, limiting the potential applications. Hence, John et al [21, 22] fabricated CeO2 and SiO2 nanofluids with reactive groups by simultaneously grafting a silane coupling agent with a double bond group during the quaternization of nanoparticles. This new type of nanofluids can be used as a supramolecular cross-linker and plasticizers with effects of toughening and reinforcement in nanocomposites.

Over the past two decades, fiber-reinforced composite have drawn great attention in scientific researches and industrial application for their potential capacity in aerospace [23, 24, 25], reinforced materials [26], and functional textile [27, 28, 29]. Among them, cotton fabrics as one of cellulose materials are economical, biodegradable materials that are woven from interlacing fibers and have an inherent wave-like surface structure. The porous fabric structure possesses some particular properties such as low density, high porosity, excellent wettability, and special softness [30]. However, poor mechanical strength and durability caused by the cotton fabric structure limit their large-scale applications.

In this paper, we synthesized a solvent-free UV-curable polymer nanocomposite [Mg(OH)2 fliuds (MHFs)-poly(trimethylolpropane triacrylate) (PTPT)]-coated hybrid cotton fabric (MHFs/PTPT/Cotton). Herein, to enhance the compatibility of MH with the polymer, the MH particles surface are modified using polysiloxane quaternary ammonium salt (DC5700) and methacryloxypropyltrimethoxylsilane. Subsequent, reactive acrylic acid groups of MHFs surface can take part in a chemical reaction with acrylate resin under UV-irradiation in the presence of a photoinitiator to form crosslinking network. Using this simple method, MH particles are fixed firmly on the fabric surface by acrylate resin due to the crosslink reaction between MHFs and acrylate resin. The as-prepared MHFs/acrylate resin-based cotton composite synchronously achieve the reinforcement and toughness as well as improving moisture barrier property, which has an important application prospect in functional textiles and polymer composite.

2 Experimental section

2.1 Materials

Cotton fabric was purchased from Shijiazhuang Yong sheng Textile Industry.

Mg(NO3)2•6H2O, sodium hydroxide, and chloroform were purchased from Aldrich. Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TPT) was purchased from Aldrich. DC5700 [(CH3O)3Si(CH2)3N+(CH)3(CH3)2(C18H37)Cl] in methanol (40 mass%) was provided by Gelest from Aldrich. Surfactant nonylphenoxy poly(ethyleneoxy) ethanol potassium sulfate (NPEP) [C9H19-C6H4-O(CH2CH2O)10SO3K+] was used as supplied by Sigma-Aldrich. Methacryloxy propyltrimethoxyl silane (MPS) was provided by Tokyo Chemical Industry (TCI). Other organic solvents were used without purification.

2.2 Preparation of MHFs

One gram of MH particles were uniformly dispersed in 50 mL of deionized water and ultrasonicated for 0.5 h. Then, mixture solution comprised of 10 mL of DC5700 in methanol solution (40 wt%) and 8 mL of MPS were dropwise added in turn and aged at room temperature for 24 h by gentle shaking periodically. The obtained solution was separated by centrifuging and the precipitates were washed for three times using deionized water and ethanol, respectively, and then dried in an oven at 65 °C for 24 h to obtain magnesium hydroxide chlorine salt. Afterwards, the obtain magnesium hydroxide chlorine salt was dissolved into 30 mL of NPEP in chloroform solution (6 wt%) followed by stirring for 5 h at 50 °C and 20 mL of deionized water was then added into the mixture with stirring for 2 h. After completion of the reaction, the mixture was transferred into dialysis tubing and dialyzed using deionized water to further remove the unreacted silane coupling agent and other impurities, and then dried in a vacuum oven at 65 °C for 48 h to obtain solvent-free MHFs. The structure and properties of MHFs were systematically characterized and the preparation route was shown as follows in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1

Schematic of synthesis of Mg(OH)2 nanofluids

2.3 Preparation of MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites

A series of MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites were fabricated by the following: Firstly, a photo initiator of 1 wt% 2-hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophe-none was added to the mixture solution of MHFs and TPT with stirring for 12 h at room temperature in completely dark conditions to obtain a homogeneous suspension. Afterwards, the suspension was uniformly coated on a cotton substrate (5 cm × 5 cm) followed by UV irradiation for 5 min via a UV curing system. The content of MHFs in MHFs/PTPT coating were 0, 10, 40, and 50 wt%, respectively, labeled as 0-MHFs/PTPT/cotton, 1-MHFs/PTPT/cotton, 4-MHFs/PTPT/cotton, and 5-MHFs/PTPT/cotton, respectively. A schematic for the fabrication of the composites is pictured in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2

Schematic descriptions of MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites

2.4 Characterization

FTIR spectra of MH and MHFs were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer (Nicolet iS10, Nicolet Instrument Corporation) using KBr pellets to study the surface groups. Infrared spectra of MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites were obtained from attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). All samples of thermos gravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted on a TGAQ50 TA instrument under nitrogen from 30 to 700 °C at the rate of 10 °C/min. Transmission electron microscopy images of MH and MHFs were obtained using JEM-1200EX microscope operated at 100 kV. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurement of composite were carried out by JSM-IT300A instrument at room temperature. Rheological measurements of MHFs were performed on AR-G2, and the gap distance was kept 600 μm for all tests with plate geometry of 40 mm in diameter. The storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) were measured at fixed angular frequency of 6.28 rad s−1 and strain amplitude of 1% at 25 °C. The curves of stress strain of composite were carried out using an Instron 5967 apparatus with speed of 10 mm/min. Five specimens were measured for each formula to get the curves of stress versus strain. G″ and G′ versus time curves of all samples were measured at light intensity of 20 mW/cm2 under the ultraviolet light with the wavelength of 365 nm [31]. All tests were conducted on the gap distance of 1 mm at 25 °C. The pencil hardness was investigated according to JIS K5400 by pencil scratch test. The composites were scratched by the pencil with various hardness standardized as in the hardening order from HB to 6H. The water absorption test was performed by placing the sample at 25 ± 2 °C and 100% RH. The weight change of the sample was then measured at every 1.5 h. The water absorption percent of MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites was calculated as follows:
$$ W\left(\%\right)=\frac{W_t-{W}_0}{W_0}\times 100\% $$

Here, Wt is the weight of MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites at different measurement time and W0 is the initial weight of MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites.

3 Results and discussions

In order to directly observe the microscopic morphology and aggregation state of the samples, the TEM of MH and MHFs are shown in Fig. 3. It was found that MH nanoparticles are easy to aggregate into bigger agglomerates due to the strong hydrogen bonding interaction between the MH particles (Fig. 3a). Moreover, at high magnification, the surface of the MH particles with a regular hexagon is flat, which form grape-like cluster structure (Fig. 3b). Compared with MH particles, MHFs composed of C, O, Mg, Si, and S elements exhibit well dispersion state despite of the existence of a few small aggregations (Fig. 3c). Especially, it was observed from Fig. 3d that there is a thin organic layer of about 10 nm around on the surface of MH core according to statistic measurement, which was similar to our previous works for SiO2 fluids [17] and halloysite fluids [32]. This phenomenon can be explained as follows. Firstly, the surface of MH was grafted with organic chains ionic compound (DC5700) through dehydration reaction between DC5700 and the surface hydroxyl of MH to form Si–O–Mg covalent bonds, which alleviate the MH to aggregate by charge repulsion. Then exchanged of the anions surfactant (NPEP) resulted in the formation of the ionic nanostructure on the surface of MH. The grafted organic molecular chains of MH surface provided enough solvent for the MH without solvent at room temperature to prevent MH aggregation. Furthermore, the grafted NPEP can move much more freely and the motion of modifying molecules becomes active, and thus they play a role in lubricant or even fluidization medium [32]. Rheology test was further utilized to confirm above phenomenon, as shown in Fig. 3e. In the angular frequency range of 0.1–100 rad/s, the storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of MHFs increased with the angular frequency increasing, and G″ > G′ in the whole angular frequency range, exhibiting liquid-like behavior. These results showed that the mobility of the long-chain molecules on the surface of the MHFs increases with the angular frequency increasing and the NPEP molecular chain accelerates the movement of MH, which can exchange with the molecular chains of the adjacent particles, resulting liquid-like flow behavior [33].
Fig. 3

TEM images of MH (a, b) and MHFs (c, d) at low (a, c) and high (b, d) magnification; G″ (solid symbols) and G′ (hollow symbols) as a function of ω for MHFs at 25 °C (E). Inset of Fig. 3c is EDX of MHFs

The MH and MHFs were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy, as shown in Fig. 4a. For MH, the absorption peak at 3700 cm−1 and 480 cm−1 are attributed to the O–H stretching vibration and stretching vibration of O–Mg [34, 35], respectively, which indicated that the MH had been successfully synthesized. As compared with MH, the spectrum of MHFs appears some new absorption peaks, such as benzene ring characteristic peaks of NPEP at 1436 cm−1, 1496 cm−1, and 1598 cm−1, which demonstrates that NPEP is successfully grafted on the surface of MH. In addition, the absorption peaks at 1450 cm−1, 1492 cm−1, and 1604 cm−1 are C–C stretching vibration peaks, and 760 cm−1 and 693 cm−1 are in-plane bending vibration peaks of C–H. These absorption peaks correspond to the skeletal vibration peak of the benzene ring in NPEP [27], indicating that the NPEP organic long chain has successfully ion exchange with DC5700.
Fig. 4

The FTIR spectra of MH and MHFs (a); the ATR-IR spectra of cotton and MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites (b)

Figure 4b shows the ATR-IR spectra of cotton and MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites and it can provide indirect evidence for the existence of the hydrogen bonding interaction between MHFs/PTPT and cotton. There is a strong band at 3313 cm−1 in the cotton curve, demonstrating that combination of the free bond and hydrogen-bonded O–H stretching. Compared with the cotton sample, the bands in MHFs/PTPT composites shifted to higher wavenumber, indicating the hydrogen bonding formation of ether groups (C–O–C) of PTPT with hydroxyl groups of cotton [36]. In addition, the peak position slightly shifts from 3433 cm−1 for MHF/PTPT/cotton to 3446 cm−1 for 1-MHF/PTPT/cotton, implying that the increment of MHFs content in composite result in the number increase of hydrogen bonding. In the meanwhile, the band at 1029 cm−1 of cotton corresponded to C–OH shifts to higher wavenumber (1186 cm−1) of MHFs/PTPT/cotton and strengthens, further demonstrating that more hydrogen bonding generate. Owing to the hydrogen bonding interaction, MHFs/PTPT can tightly adhere to the surface of cotton fabrics and improve the mechanical properties of MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites.

SEM images of 1-MHFs/PTPT/cotton composite are used to clearly reveal their microstructure and morphology, as shown in Fig. 5. For original pure, relative smooth surface was observed on the surface of cotton fabric, which is the characteristic morphology of original cotton (Fig. 5a). After coating 1-MHFs/PTPT, at low magnification, it was found that MHFs still exhibits much more uniform distribution without obvious larger aggregations (Fig. 5b), demonstrating that the surface modification of MH particles may well reduce the surface energy of MH nanoparticles and thus effectively prevent the agglomeration of MH particles and improve the dispersibility due to the strong charge repulsion effect among MHFs. Moreover, after 40 times of washing cycles, it is calculated that the weight of 1-MHFs/PTPT/cotton remains unchanged. It is observed from Fig. 5c that MHFs/PTPT with wrinkle structures were tightly attached on the surface of cotton fabric, which was attributed to strong interfacial interaction between MHFs/PTPT and cotton fabric. The EDX spectrum also confirmed that the existence of major elements of C, O, Mg, Si, and S, demonstrating that MHFs were introduced into MHFs/PTPT/cotton crosslinking network (Fig. 5d).
Fig. 5

Morphology of original cotton fabric (a) and 1-MHFs/PTPT/cotton composite at low (b) and high (c) magnification and its corresponding EDX results (d). Bottom right inset (b) is the digital picture of 1-MHFs/PTPT/cotton composite

Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) tests were used to evaluate the thermal stability and composition of all samples, as shown in Fig. 6a. There are weight loss of all curves below 150 °C which was mainly attributed to physically absorbed moisture water by samples. After introduction of MHFs/PTPT coating onto the surface of cotton fabrics, other samples exhibit two steps during the thermal degradation process except original cotton fabric. It is found that the degradation temperature of all composite samples with initial weight loss of 5 wt% shifted lower temperature than cotton. In the meantime, the detail information of degradation behavior of all samples is shown in Fig. 6b. Compared with original cotton, other samples showed two maximum degradation peaks between 337 and 467 °C and their first maximum degradation peaks shift from 363 °C of original cotton to lower temperature, which mainly ascribed the decomposition of the alkyl groups of NPEP from MHFs [18]. In addition, as the content of MHFs increases, the two peak temperatures of maximum degradation for composites shift from 358 and 467 °C of PTPT/cotton to 341 and 419 °C of 5-MHFs/PTPT/cotton, respectively. On the one hand, with the content of MHFs increasing, introduction of many soft organic long chains (NPEP) into composites lowered their first maximum degradation; on the other hand, MHFs as reactive crosslinking agent reduced the crosslinking reaction between TPT monomers in the meantime increasing the reaction between MHFs and TPT monomers, thus leading to the crosslinking degree reduction of PTPT matrix. With the synergistic effect of soft organic long chains of MHFs surface and crosslinking degree reduction of PTPT matrix, the addition of MHFs do not improve the thermal stability of the composites.
Fig. 6

a TGA and b DTG curves of cotton and its composite with different loading of MHFs

The polymerization reaction of monomer is generally considered to be completed when modulus reaches a plateau value [27]. Hence, rheological/ultraviolet synchronous measurement is utilized to evaluate the influence of UV polymerization time on the dynamic modulus of MHFs/PTPT, as shown in Fig. 7. It can be seen that all samples start to react at 5 s. With the time increasing, both G′ and G″ values sharply increased. Moreover, G′ of all samples are much greater than that of G″ after crosslinking time of 12 s. When reaction time reached 20 s, 1-MHF/PTPT/cotton firstly approached its plateau platforms. Afterwards, 4-MHF/PTPT/cotton and 5-MHF/PTPT/cotton reached their plateau values at 50 s and 60 s, respectively. In the meantime, with the content of MHFs increasing, the corresponding G″ values of all samples successively decreases in the platform region, demonstrating that the organic long chains on MHFs surface can increase the flexibility of the polymer composite, resulting in the modulus reduction of polymer composite [27].
Fig. 7

G′ (solid symbol) and G″ (hollow symbol) as a function of photo-polymerization time for 1-MHF/PTPT/cotton, 4-MHF/PTPT/cotton, and 5-MHF/PTPT/cotton

The stress-strai4n curves of all samples are shown in Fig. 8a. It can be observed that all the samples have no stress yield point during the stretching process. As the content of MHFs increases, the Young’s modulus of 4-MHFs/TPT/cotton reaches a maximum value of 1440.77 MPa, which is much higher than that of the pure 0-MHFs/PTPT/cotton of 580.34 MPa. However, when the MHF content is 50%, the Young’s modulus of 5-MHFs/PTPT/cotton decreased to 679.19 MPa (Fig. 8b). On the one hand, MHFs as chemical crosslinking point can connect the PTPT molecules to form strong crosslinking network structure, leading to the obvious increase of Young’s modulus. On the other hand, when the MHF content is over the 50%, the MHFs are not uniformly dispersed in the PTPT matrix and form agglomerates, resulting in stress concentration in the polymer and deteriorate the mechanical properties of the polymer composite. Similarly, the tensile strength of all samples display same trend, as shown in Fig. 8c. It is found that the tensile strength of MHFs/TPT/cotton composites increase from of 13 MPa for 0-MHFs/TPT/cotton to 46 MPa for 4-MHFs/TPT/cotton and then slightly decrease to 44 MPa for 5-MHFs/TPT/cotton. Interestingly, the elongation at break of MHFs/TPT/cotton composites decreased slightly from 13.4% for 0-MHFs/TPT/cotton to 11.9% for 1-MHFs/TPT/cotton and then increase to 16% for 5-MHFs/TPT/cotton. when the content of the MHFs in the polymer is relatively low, the content of the flexible long chain in the system is also low, the rigidity of the MHFs play a key role in the polymer reinforcement, resulting in decrease of elongation at break of polymer composite. When the MHF content increases, the content of flexible long chain also increases, leading to the modulus reduction and increase the flexibility of the polymer composite [27].
Fig. 8

Stress-strain curves (a); young’s modulus (b), and tensile strength and elongation at break (c) of pure cotton, 0-MHFs/PTPT/cotton, 1-MHFs/PTPT/cotton, 4-MHFs/PTPT/cotton, and 5-MHFs/PTPT/cotton

The scratch hardness of the MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites is evaluated by pencil method, as shown in Table 1. It can be seen that the hardness decreases from 6H for PTPT to HB for other samples with the increase amount of MHFs, demonstrating that the addition of MHFs as filler decrease the hardness and complex modulus of the composites.
Table 1

Surface hardness of pure cotton, PTPT, 1-MHFs/PTPT/cotton, 4-MHFs/PTPT/cotton, and 5-MHFs/PTPT/cotton

Sample

Cotton

PTPT

1-MHFs/PTPT/cotton

4-MHFs/PTPT/cotton

5-MHFs/PTPT/cotton

Hardness

HB

6H

HB

HB

HB

The moisture barrier property of polymer composites is an important parameter with regard to use as encapsulation layers for fabric coating. Herein, the WVTR values was measured to evaluate the moisture barrier property of MHFs/PTPT composites, as shown in Fig. 9a. The WVTR value of bare PTPT gradually increases from initial value of 170.5 g/m2 day to the highest balance value of 197.2 g/m2 day. With the addition of MHFs, the WVTR values of MHF/PTPT composites with 5 and 20 wt% MHFs were as low as 177.9 and 135.1 g/m2 day, respectively. There are two reason accounts for the obvious reduction of WVTR values, as pictured in Fig. 6c. On the one hand, due to the flake diamond shape of MHFs, introduction of MHFs into polymer matrix generated longer tortuous paths than that of spherical particle for diffusing water molecules along the longitudinal direction to travel around the MHFs, and thus extend the permeation time. On the other hand, dual layer ionic structure of MHFs can effectively absorb water molecules through solvation effect between ionic bonds and the water molecules. WCAs of MHF/PTPT film further provide the evidence to confirm above results, as shown in Fig. 9b. It can be observed that the WCAs of pure PTPT slowly decrease and reach the balance value of 49°, while the initial contact angle of MHF/PTPT films of the polymeric film decreased from 65° to 35° with MHF loading increasing and eventually stabilized at the same values of 9.4°, regardless of the content of MHFs, indicating the water solubility of the organic long chain ion of MHFs structure account for the improvement of the hydrophilic properties.
Fig. 9

a WVTR values of MHFs/PTPT composites with different content of MHFs at 25 ± 2 °C and 100% RH as functions of time. The thickness of polymer film on the cotton fabric was 90 μm; b WCAs of pure cotton fabric and MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites; c schematic illustration of barrier mechanism of MHFs in polymer matrix

4 Conclusion

Functionalized MHFs as reactive filler were dispersed in TPT monomer without solvent to fabricate high performance MHFs/PTPT/cotton composites via UV photo-polymerization. These results demonstrated that the addition of MHFs have dual effects as crosslinking points and plasticizing could synchronously achieve the reinforcement and toughness of MHFs/PTPT/cotton fabrics meanwhile obviously improving the moisture barrier property due to solvation effect and barrier property of MHFs. It is believed that MHFs/PTPT composites as encapsulation layer has potential application in various flexible fabric and other electronic devices.

Notes

Funding information

This work was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51403165), Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province (2018CFB685, 2018CFB267), Graduate Innovation Fund of Wuhan Textile University (52300200101), the Foundation of Wuhan Textile University (183004) and Open Project Program of High-Tech Organic Fibers Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province (PLN2016-02) and Opening Project of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Calcium Carbonate Resources Comprehensive Utilization (HZXYKFKT201808), and the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Program of Hubei province (201810495060).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Qin
    • 1
  • Qiao Yu
    • 1
  • Xianze Yin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yingshan Zhou
    • 1
  • Jin Xu
    • 1
  • Luoxin Wang
    • 1
  • Hua Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhenming Chen
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and ApplicationWuhan Textile UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.High-Tech Organic Fibers Key Laboratory of Sichuan ProvinceSichuan Textile Science Research InstituteChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Guangxi Key Laboratory of Calcium Carbonate Resources Comprehensive Utilization Hezhou UniversityHezhouPeople’s Republic of China

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