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Optimization of three power and desalination plants and exergy-based economic and CO2 emission cost allocation and comparison

  • A. Chun
  • M. A. Barone
  • A. B. LourençoEmail author
Original Article
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

In this work, a multi-effect distillation with thermal vapor compression desalination unit is proposed to satisfy the freshwater demand of São Mateus, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The desalination unit is driven by saturated vapor produced by boiler or heat recovery steam generator. The goal and main contribution of this work are, respectively, to compare and evaluate the most feasible configuration among a steam power cycle, gas turbine and combined cycle power plant. To accomplish this objective, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are used, and economic analyses are carried out for each option. In consequence, an optimization using a genetic algorithm shows the optimal results. The usage of an exergy-based approach for cost allocation assists in the best judgment. For instance, the combined cycle power plant driving a desalination unit presents the highest net power generation of 51.7 MW and a total cost rate of 24,811 US$ h−1, which means a Leveled Cost of Energy of around 0.132 US$ kWh−1. In addition, it has the lowest exergetic and monetary costs of net power (2.316 kJ kJ−1 and 0.132 US$ kWh−1) and freshwater (17.9 kJ kJ−1 and 2.684 US$ kWh−1). However, it also has the highest environmental cost for net power (22.451 kgCO2 kWh−1) and the second highest one for freshwater (196.120 × 10−3 kgCO2 m−3).

Keywords

Combined cycle Exergoeconomics Gas turbine Genetic algorithm Multi-effect distillation Steam cycle 

List of symbols

c

Monetary unit cost [US$ kWh−1]

CRF

Annual capital recovery factor

DTML

Logarithmic mean temperature difference [°C]

E

Exergy [kW]

h

Specific enthalpy [kJ kg−1]

k

Exergetic unit cost [kW kW−1]

\({\dot{m}}\)

Mass flow rate [kg s−1]

N

Hour of plant operation per year [h]

OF

Objective function

P

Pressure [kPa]

\({\dot{Q}}\)

Heat transfer rate [kW]

RP

Pressure relation

T

Temperature [°C]

TCI

Total cost of investment

\({\dot{W}}\)

Power [kW]

x

Mass fraction

Ż

Cost rate [$ s−1]

Subscripts

AC

Air compressor

APP

Economizer approach

BO

Boiler

br

Brine

CC

Combustion chamber

ec

Economizer

ev

Evaporator

F

Fuel

fw

Freshwater

GT

Gas turbine

in

Inlet

NET

Net output

out

Outlet

PM

Pump and motor

PP

Pinch point

rw

Return water

SA

Superheating

sh

Superheater

ST

Steam turbine

sw

Sea water

TOT

Total

Greek symbols

α

External fuel unit cost

η

Isentropic efficiency

λ

Specific CO2 emission [kgCO2 kWh−1]

φ

Maintenance factor [–]

ΔT

Temperature difference [°C]

Abbreviations

AC

Air compressor

BO

Boiler

CC

Combustion chamber

CCI

Construction cost index

CCPP

Combined cycle power plant

CEPCI

Chemical engineering plant cost index

ENR

Engineering News-Record

FI

Installation factor

GOR

Gain output ration

GT

Gas turbine

HRS

Heat recovery steam generator

MED

Multi-effect distillation

MSF

Multi stage flash

OF

Objective function

PEC

Purchase equipment cost

PM

Pump and motor

RO

Reverse osmosis

ST

Steam turbine

TVC

Thermal vapor compression

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Professor Márcio Coelho de Mattos, Head of DEM/Ufes, for his support.

Funding

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Power Generation (LaGePot), Department of Mechanical Engineering (DEM)Federal University of Espírito Santo (Ufes)VitóriaBrazil

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