Advertisement

Experimental and numerical analysis of the behaviour of masonry walls strengthened with CFRP reinforced render

  • João Guerreiro
  • João Gomes FerreiraEmail author
  • Jorge Proença
  • António Gago
Original Paper
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

Old masonry walls, which present a limited bending capacity, generally need strengthening in order to provide an overall seismic resistance to old buildings. To achieve such purpose an innovative strengthening technique was developed, consisting in the application of an exterior render layer with a structural role. The flexural resistance improvement of such technique results from the mechanical properties of the materials used and requires a proper application procedure. This innovative solution, henceforth designated as “CFRP reinforced render”, consists of a lime base mortar reinforced with a carbon mesh, applied on one or both faces of the masonry wall. The reinforced render solution, developed within this study, aims to provide improved mechanical capabilities to the strengthened masonry walls while respecting the main principles for rehabilitation of ancient buildings. In particular, it complies with material authenticity/compatibility principle, because it is based on a lime base mortar, and with the structural compatibility principle, as it involves a distributed strengthening all over the main original structural elements—the masonry walls, instead of imposing unbalanced concentrated strength. In this context, an extensive experimental campaign was developed involving in-plane and out-of-plane full-scale bending tests on plain and on strengthened wall specimens reproducing the mechanical and geometrical characteristics of old masonry walls. Based on the experimental results obtained, a numerical approach was developed to simulate the behaviour of the plain and of the strengthened masonry walls for different geometrical configurations and for different mechanical parameters. Besides allowing a better understanding of the behaviour of the strengthening technique, the developed models presented in this paper may aid the design of CFRP reinforced render solutions.

Keywords

Masonry Plasticity Macro-modelling Reinforcement CFRP Render 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge STAP, S.A, promoter of the R&D project RehabToolBox, sponsored by FEDER through the POR Lisboa—QREN—Sistemas de Incentivos I&DT, for allowing the disclosure of the data presented in this paper. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the participation of S&P, S.A in the same R&D project. The authors would like to thank the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education), FCT, Portugal, [Grant number SFRH/BD/79339/2011].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Berto, L., Saetta, A., Scotta, R., & Vitaliani, R. (2002). An orthotropic damage model for masonry structures. Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 55, 127–157.  https://doi.org/10.1002/nme.495.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Bruggi, M., Milani, G., & Talierci, A. (2014). Simple topology optimization strategy for the FRP reinforcement of masonry walls in two-way bending. Computers and Structures, 138, 86–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruc.2014.02.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carozzi, F., Bellini, A., D’Antino, T., Felice, G., Focacci, F., Hojdys, L., et al. (2013). Experimental investigation of tensile and bond properties of Carbon-FRCM composites for strengthening masonry elements. Composites Part B: Engineering, 46, 15–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.06.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. D’Ambrisi, A., Feo, L., & Focacci, F. (2013). Experimental and analytical investigation on bond between Carbon-FRCM materials and masonry. Composites Part B: Engineering, 46, 15–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.10.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Feo, L., Luciano, R., Misseri, G., & Rovero, L. (2016). Irregular stone masonries: analysis and strengthening with glass fibre reinforced composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 92, 84–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2016.02.038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gambarotta, L., & Lagomarsino, S. (1997). Damage models for the seismic response of brick masonry shear walls. Part I: the mortar joint model and its application. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 26(4), 423–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Grande, E., Milani, G., & Sacco, E. (2007). Modelling and analysis of FRP-strengthened masonry panels. Engineering Structures, 30, 1842–1860.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2007.12.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Guerreiro, J., Proença, J., Ferreira, J., & Gago, A. (2017). Bonding and anchoring of a CFRP reinforced render for the external strengthening of old masonry buildings. Construction and Building Materials, 155, 56–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.08.043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guerreiro, J., Proença, J., Ferreira, J., & Gago, A. (2018a). Experimental characterization of in-plane behaviour of old masonry walls strengthened through the addition of CFRP reinforced render. Composites Part B: Engineering, 148, 14–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.04.045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guerreiro, J., Ferreira, J., Proença, J., & Gago, A. (2018b). Strengthening of old masonry walls for out-of-plane seismic loading with a CFRP reinforced render. Experimental Techniques.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40799-018-0239-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hilleborg, A., Modeer, M., & Petersson, P. (1976). Analysis of crack formation and crack growth in concrete by means of fracture mechanics and finite elements. Cement and Concrete Research, 6, 773–782.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(76)90007-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lee, J., & Fenves, G. (1998). Plastic-damage model for cyclic loading of concrete structures. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 124(8), 892–900.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lourenço, P. (2002). Computation on historic masonry structures. Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials, 4, 301–319.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pse.120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lourenco, P. (1996). Computational strategies for masonry structures. Ph.D. Thesis. Netherlands: Delft University.Google Scholar
  15. Lourenço, P., & Zuccchini, A. (2001). A homogenization model for stretcher bond masonry. Computer methods in structural masonry-5. London: Computers and Geothecnics.Google Scholar
  16. Lubliner, J., Oliver, J., Oller, S., & Oñate, E. (1989). A plastic-damage model for concrete. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 25, 299–329.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7683(89)90050-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Marfia, S., & Sacco, E. (2012). Multiscale damage contact-friction model for periodic masonry walls. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 205–208, 189–203.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2010.12.024.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. Maruccio, C., Basilio, I., Oliveira, D., Lourenço, P., & Monti, G. (2014). Numerical modelling and parametric analysis of bond strength of masonry members retrofitted with FRP. Construction and Building Materials, 73, 713–727.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.09.082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mistle, M., Butenweg, C., & Meskouris, K. (2006). Modelling methods of historic masonry buildings under seismic excitation. Journal of Seismology, 10, 497–510.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10950-006-9033-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Oliveira, D., & Lourenco, P. (2004). Implementation and validation of a constitutive model for the cyclic behaviour of interface elements. Computers and Structures, 82, 1451–1461.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruc.2004.03.041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Park, J., Towashiraporn, P., Craig, J., & Goodno, B. (2009). Seismic fragility analysis of low-rise unreinforced masonry structures. Engineering Structures, 31, 125–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2008.07.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pelà, L., Cervera, M., & Roca, P. (2013). An orthotropic damage model for the analysis of masonry structures. Construction and Building Materials, 41, 957–967.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.07.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Senthivel, R., & Lourenco, P. (2009). Finite element modelling of deformation characteristics of historical stone masonry shear walls. Engineering Structures, 31, 1930–1943.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.02.046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources, CERIS, ISTUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations