Effective Selection Indices for Improving Tolerance to Water Stress in Millet Germplasm

  • H. Vaezi
  • G. Mohammadi-NejadEmail author
  • E. Majidi-Heravan
  • B. Nakhoda
  • F. Darvish-Kajouri


To evaluate the yield potential of 96 ecotypes including 48 proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) and 48 foxtail millet ecotypes (Setaria italica) along with four check cultivars under well-watered and water stress conditions, a field experiment was carried out in the Agricultural Research Institute, Meybod, Yazd, Iran, during 2013–2014 using an incomplete block design with two replications. Based on the grain and forage yield, tolerance (TOL), stress susceptibility index (SSI), mean productivity (MP), harmonic mean (HM), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and stress tolerance index (STI) as drought tolerance indices were calculated and tolerant genotype selection index (TGSI) was conducted along with factor analysis. Among all the ecotypes and according to all indices, ecotypes S100, P10, S52, P97, S108, P20, S55, S104 and S18 were selected as the most drought-tolerant and grain yield potential. In addition, ecotypes P34, S104, P97, S39, S53, P102, P23, P5, S18, S13, S12, P92, and S3 were tolerant ecotypes with high potential forage yield. The results indicated that the ranking by TGSI was almost similar to the results obtained through the factor analysis. In addition, TGSI has had easier calculations than factor analysis and other methods. Therefore, it is suggested to explore the stress tolerant ecotypes in practical plant breeding.


Foxtail millet Proso millet Stress-tolerance/sensitive indices Water stress 



Mean productivity


Geometric mean productivity




Stress susceptibility index


Abiotic tolerance index


Stress tolerance index


Tolerant genotype selection index


Harmonic mean


Water use efficiency


Yield potential


Yield in stress


Plant height


Day to flowering


Panicle length


Panicle weight


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Research and Technology Institute of Plant ProductionShahid Bahonar University of KermanKermanIran
  3. 3.Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)KarajIran

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