Effect of Planting System and Elevated CO2 Environment on Soil NH4+–N and NO3–N Content and Yield of Hybrid Rice in Subtropical India

  • Pallavi Singh
  • Dillip Kumar SwainEmail author
  • Pratap Bhanu Singh Bhadoria
  • Sindhu Jagadamma


A comparative study on the effect of elevated CO2 environment on soil nitrogen availability in different rice planting system is needed to develop nutrient management strategies in future climate scenarios. A field experiment was conducted inside open top chambers (OTC) to study the effect of elevated CO2 environment with varying nitrogen management on soil NH4+–N and NO3–N status in two planting system of rice, direct-seeded rice (DSR) and puddled transplanted rice (PTR). The nitrogen management included chemical fertilizer (CF) at 100% (CF100) and 150% (CF150) of the recommended dose, integrated nitrogen management including organic fertilizer (OF) and CF as CF75+ OF75, and site-specific N management through CF using SPAD meter. The soil NH4+–N content was higher in PTR, but NO3–N was higher in DSR. The soil NH4+–N and NO3–N content decreased significantly under elevated CO2 environment as compared to ambient in both planting system, except the NO3–N content at flowering in DSR. The decrease was around 8% for NH4+–N and 5% for NO3–N content. Soil nitrogen content in DSR can be maintained by following integrated nutrient management (CF75 + OF75) and SPAD-based nitrogen management for sustainable yield. Grain yield, in general, increased with CO2 elevation in both planting system. Under ambient environment, CF150 increased the grain yield by 23% as compared to CF100 in DSR, but no change was noted in PTR. However, under elevated CO2 environment, CF150 increased the grain yield by 13% in PTR. Under elevated CO2 environment, the yield increase of the hybrid rice to additional N fertilizer application was noted in PTR but not in DSR. This study suggests that for sustainable rice production under increasing CO2 environment in future climate scenarios, higher dose of N fertilizer is recommended in PTR, but normal dose in DSR production system.


Elevated CO2 Direct seeded rice Open-top chamber Puddled transplanted rice Soil N content 



This work was supported through Food Security Research project by the Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this work.

Supplementary material

42106_2019_39_MOESM1_ESM.docx (202 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 202 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pallavi Singh
    • 1
  • Dillip Kumar Swain
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pratap Bhanu Singh Bhadoria
    • 1
  • Sindhu Jagadamma
    • 2
  1. 1.Agricultural and Food Engineering DepartmentIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia
  2. 2.Biosystems Engineering and Soil ScienceThe University of Tennessee Institute of AgricultureKnoxvilleUSA

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