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68Ga-PSMA PET thyroid incidentalomas

  • Francesco BertagnaEmail author
  • Domenico Albano
  • Luca Giovanella
  • Mattia Bonacina
  • Rexhep Durmo
  • Raffaele Giubbini
  • Giorgio Treglia
Review Article



Thyroid incidentaloma is defined as a thyroid lesion incidentally and newly detected by imaging techniques performed for an unrelated purpose and especially for a non-thyroid disease. The aim of this review is to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of focal incidental radiolabelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) uptake in the thyroid gland [PSMA thyroid incidentaloma (PTI)] revealed by PET/CT or PET/MRI.


A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase databases was conducted to find relevant published articles about the prevalence and clinical significance of PTIs detected by PET/CT or PET/MRI in patients studied for other oncologic purposes.


Twelve articles were included in the systematic review. Among 23 PTIs, 6 were malignant (5 primary thyroid tumors and one metastasis from renal cell carcinoma), one was a follicular lesion of undetermined significance, and the rest were benign.


Despite being very rare, though probably underestimated, PTIs frequently signal the presence of unexpected lesions in the thyroid which differ from the indicated reason for which the patient was initially scanned and concerning which the risk of malignancy is not negligible.


Thyroid Incidental Thyroid incidentaloma PSMA (Prostate-specific membrane antigen) PET (Positron emission tomography) 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Hellenic Endocrine Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Bertagna
    • 1
    Email author
  • Domenico Albano
    • 1
  • Luca Giovanella
    • 2
  • Mattia Bonacina
    • 1
  • Rexhep Durmo
    • 1
  • Raffaele Giubbini
    • 1
  • Giorgio Treglia
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Nuclear MedicineUniversity of Brescia and Spedali Civili di BresciaBresciaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT CenterOncology Institute of Southern SwitzerlandBellinzonaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular ImagingLausanne University HospitalLausanneSwitzerland
  4. 4.Health Technology Assessment UnitGeneral Directorate, Ente Ospedaliero CantonaleBellinzonaSwitzerland

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