Association between allopurinol use and Parkinson’s disease in older adults

Research Paper
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

Introduction

Little evidence is available about the association between allopurinol use and Parkinson’s disease. The present study aimed to explore the association between allopurinol use and Parkinson’s disease in older adults in Taiwan.

Methods

We conducted a population-based case–control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. In total, 4399 subjects aged ≥ 65 years with newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease between 2000 and 2013 were included as the cases. Additionally, 4399 subjects aged ≥ 65 years without Parkinson’s disease were randomly selected as the controls. Both cases and controls were matched for age and comorbidities. Ever use of allopurinol was defined as subjects who had at least a prescription for allopurinol before the index date, whereas never use of allopurinol was defined as those who never had a prescription for allopurinol before the index date. We used the logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between allopurinol use and Parkinson’s disease.

Results

The OR of Parkinson’s disease was 0.93 for subjects with ever use of allopurinol (95% CI 0.82, 1.04), compared with never use.

Conclusions

No association can be detected between allopurinol use and Parkinson’s disease in older adults in Taiwan.

Keywords

Allopurinol Case–control study Older adults Parkinson’s disease Taiwan National Health Insurance Program 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported in part by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan (MOHW107-TDU-B-212-123004), China Medical University Hospital, Academia Sinica Stroke Biosignature Project (BM10701010021), MOST Clinical Trial Consortium for Stroke (MOST 106-2321-B-039-005-), Tseng-Lien Lin Foundation, Taichung, Taiwan, and Katsuzo and Kiyo Aoshima Memorial Funds, Japan. These funding agencies did not influence the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Author contributions

S-WL: contributed to the conception of the article, initiated the draft of the article, and revised the article. C-LL: conducted the data analysis and revised the article. K-FL: participated in the data interpretation and revised the article.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors disclose no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of China Medical University and Hospital in Taiwan (CMUH-104-REC2-115).

Informed consent

Patient informed consent was not required. Insurance reimbursement claims data used in the study were available for public access. Patient identification numbers had been scrambled to ensure confidentiality.

References

  1. 1.
    de Lau LM, Breteler MM (2006) Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol 5:525–535CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Elbaz A, Carcaillon L, Kab S et al (2016) Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease. Rev Neurol 172:14–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sarrafchi A, Bahmani M, Shirzad H et al (2016) Oxidative stress and Parkinson’s disease: new hopes in treatment with herbal antioxidants. Curr Pharm Des 22:238–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Puspita L, Chung SY, Shim JW (2017) Oxidative stress and cellular pathologies in Parkinson’s disease. Mol Brain 10:53CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pacher P, Nivorozhkin A, Szabo C (2006) Therapeutic effects of xanthine oxidase inhibitors: renaissance half a century after the discovery of allopurinol. Pharmacol Rev 58:87–114CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kachroo A, Schwarzschild MA (2014) Allopurinol reduces levels of urate and dopamine but not dopaminergic neurons in a dual pesticide model of Parkinson’s disease. Brain Res 14:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gokce Cokal B, Yurtdas M, Keskin Guler S et al (2017) Serum glutathione peroxidase, xanthine oxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities and malondialdehyde levels in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neurol Sci 38:425–431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lai SW, Lin CL, Liao KF (2017) Population-based cohort study investigating the association between weight loss and pyogenic liver abscesses. Biomedicine 7:38–43Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yang MD, Lin KC, Lu MC et al (2017) Contribution of matrix metalloproteinases-1 genotypes to gastric cancer susceptibility in Taiwan. Biomedicine (Taiwan) 7:18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang JS, Lu CC, Kuo SC et al (2017) Autophagy and its link to type II diabetes mellitus. Biomedicine (Taiwan) 7:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wu MH, Lee TH, Lee HP et al (2017) Kuei-Lu-Er-Xian-Jiao extract enhances BMP-2 production in osteoblasts. Biomedicine-Taiwan 7:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wen YJ, Yin MC (2017) The anti-inflammatory and anti-glycative effects of rosmarinic acid in the livers of type 1 diabetic mice. Biomedicine 7:37–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ministry of Health and Welfare Taiwan. 2016 Taiwan Health and Welfare Report. http://www.mohw.gov.tw [cited on December 1, 2017, English version]
  14. 14.
    Tsai TY, Lin CC, Peng CY et al (2016) The association between biliary tract inflammation and risk of digestive system cancers: a population-based cohort study. Medicine 95:e4427CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen HY, Lin CL, Lai SW et al (2016) Association of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and acute angle-closure glaucoma. J Clin Psychiatry 77:e692–e696CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lai SW, Liao KF, Liao CC et al (2010) Polypharmacy correlates with increased risk for hip fracture in the elderly: a population-based study. Medicine 89:295–299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang IK, Lai SW, Lai HC et al (2018) Risk of and fatality from acute pancreatitis in long-term hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 38:30–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lai SW, Lin CL, Liao KF (2017) Use of oral corticosteroids and risk of hip fracture in the elderly in a case-control study. Front Pharmacol 8:625CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lai SW, Liao KF, Lin CL et al (2014) Irritable bowel syndrome correlates with increased risk of Parkinson’s disease in Taiwan. Eur J Epidemiol 29:57–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lai SW, Lin CH, Lin HF et al (2017) Herpes zoster correlates with increased risk of Parkinson’s disease in older people: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan. Medicine 96:e6075CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lai S-W, Lin C-H, Lin C-L et al (2014) Gout and Parkinson’s Disease in older people: an observation in Taiwan. Int J Gerontol 8:166–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lai SW, Lin CL, Liao KF (2017) Glaucoma correlates with increased risk of Parkinson’s disease in the elderly: a national-based cohort study in Taiwan. Curr Med Res Opin 33:1511–1516CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lai SW, Lin CL, Liao KF et al (2015) Increased risk of Parkinson’s disease in cataract patients: a population-based cohort study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 21:68–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liao KF, Lin CL, Lai SW (2017) Nationwide case–control study examining the association between tamoxifen use and Alzheimer’s Disease in aged women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Front Pharmacol 8:612CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lai S-W, Lin H-F, Lin C-L et al (2017) No association between losartan use and acute pancreatitis in hypertensive patients. Eur J Hosp Pharm 24:120–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lai SW, Cheng KC, Lin CL et al (2017) Furosemide use and acute risk of hip fracture in older people: a nationwide case–control study in Taiwan. Geriatr Gerontol Int 17:2552–2558CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hung SC, Liao KF, Hung HC et al (2016) Nabumetone use and risk of acute pancreatitis in a case–control study. Pancreatology 16:353–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dopp JM, Philippi NR, Marcus NJ et al (2011) Xanthine oxidase inhibition attenuates endothelial dysfunction caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats. Respiration 82:458–467CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    George J, Struthers AD (2009) Role of urate, xanthine oxidase and the effects of allopurinol in vascular oxidative stress. Vasc Health Risk Manag 5:265–272CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ungprasert P, Srivali N, Thongprayoon C (2015) Gout is not associated with a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 21:1238–1242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Winquist A, Steenland K, Shankar A (2010) Higher serum uric acid associated with decreased Parkinson’s disease prevalence in a large community-based survey. Mov Disord 25:932–936CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    de Lau LM, Koudstaal PJ, Hofman A et al (2005) Serum uric acid levels and the risk of Parkinson disease. Ann Neurol 58:797–800CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lai SW, Liao KF, Lin CL et al (2013) Association between head injury and Parkinson’s disease: an observation in Taiwan. Geriatr Gerontol Int 13:513–514CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Geriatric Medicine Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of MedicineChina Medical UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Family MedicineChina Medical University HospitalTaichungTaiwan
  3. 3.Management Office for Health DataChina Medical University HospitalTaichungTaiwan
  4. 4.College of MedicineTzu Chi UniversityHualienTaiwan
  5. 5.Department of Internal MedicineTaichung Tzu Chi General HospitalTaichung CityTaiwan

Personalised recommendations