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Unterschätzter Risikofaktor vieler Krankheiten – Wie lässt sich ein Magnesiummangel nachweisen?

  • Jürgen VormannEmail author
  • Tanja Werner
Originalien
  • 15 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Magnesiummangel ist ein wichtiger Risikofaktor für verschiedene Krankheiten. Die Mechanismen der Magnesiumhomöostase wurden in den letzten Jahren aufgeklärt. Ein Magnesiummangel in der Nahrung führt nicht zu schnellen Mangelsymptomen, da die Knochen die extrazelluläre Magnesiumkonzentration puffern. Die Magnesiumkonzentration im Serum nimmt erst nach Erschöpfung des Skelettspeichers ab. Eine reduzierte Serummagnesiumkonzentration (<0,85 mmol/l) ist ein zuverlässiger Indikator für ein Defizit. Klinische Anzeichen eines Magnesiummangels können jedoch auftreten, bevor die Serumkonzentration gesunken ist. Darüber hinaus kann eine schnelle Freisetzung aus intrazellulären Speichern während der Blutentnahme dazu führen, dass die Blutkonzentration künstlich ansteigt und ein Mangel maskiert wird. In der klinischen Praxis wird ein Magnesiummangel deshalb hauptsächlich durch klinische Symptome (neuromuskuläre Übererregbarkeit, Herzrhythmusstörungen und Kopfschmerzen) diagnostiziert. Darüber hinaus muss das Risiko eines Magnesiumdefizits aufgrund unzureichender Zufuhr oder durch erhöhte arzneimittelbedingte Verluste berücksichtigt werden.

Schlüsselwörter

Ernährung Herzrhythmusstörungen Homöostase Mangelerkrankungen Risikofaktoren 

An underestimated risk factor for many diseases—How to detect a magnesium deficiency?

Abstract

Magnesium deficiency is being recognized as an important risk factor for various diseases. Mechanisms of magnesium homeostasis have been elucidated in recent years. A dietary magnesium deficiency will not lead to rapid deficiency symptoms as the bones buffer extracellular magnesium concentration. Serum magnesium concentration will only decrease after exhaustion of the skeletal stores. A reduced serum magnesium concentration (<0.85 mmol/l) is a reliable measure of a deficit. However, clinical signs of magnesium deficiency may be overt prior to reduced serum concentrations. Furthermore, rapid release from intracellular stores during blood sampling may lead to artificially increased blood concentrations, masking a deficiency. In clinical practice, magnesium deficiency is diagnosed mainly by clinical symptoms (neuromuscular overexcitability, cardiac arrhythmias, and headache). In addition, risk of a magnesium deficit due to insufficient intakes or increased losses due to use of magnesium wasting medications must be taken into account.

Keywords

Diet Cardiac arrhythmias Homeostasis Deficiency diseases Risk factors 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

J. Vormann und T. Werner geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Prävention und ErnährungIsmaningDeutschland
  2. 2.NuOmix Research k.s.MartinSlowakei

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