Advertisement

Graphic illustration for mechanical reliability design (2): theory and method

  • Yimin ZhangEmail author
Review
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper, the connotation and an extension of the mechanical reliability design theory and method are presented via charts and texts. The abstruse mechanical reliability theories and methods are illustrated intuitively and scientifically via easy-to-understand language and simple and clear illustrations. Topics such as mechanical strength design, mechanical reliability design, dynamic and gradual reliability design, reliability optimization design, reliability sensitivity design and reliability robust design are covered to help the readers understand the wonder and practicality of mechanical reliability engineering. Diagrams of reliability design, dynamic and gradual reliability theory and technology, reliability optimization design, reliability sensitivity design and reliability robust design are illustrated for the first time. Additionally, the relationship between mechanical product reliability design and conventional safety factor design is elaborated in a table. This paper provides a solid mechanical reliability engineering foundation for design, manufacturing, usage and evaluation of mechanical products.

Keywords

Reliability design Illustration and text Theory and method 

Notes

References

  1. Ahammed M, Melchers RE (2006) Gradient and parameter sensitivity estimation for systems evaluated using Monte Carlo analysis. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 91(5):594–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambartzumian R, Der Kiureghian A, Ohanian V et al (1998) Multinormal probability by sequential conditioned importance sampling: theory and application. Probab Eng Mech 13(4):299–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anatoli V, Skorokhod FC, Hoppensteadt HS (2002) Random perturbation methods with applications in science and engineering. Springer, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrieu-Renaud C, Sudret B, Lemaire M (2004) The PHI2 method: a way to compute time-variant reliability. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 84:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ang AHS, Tang WH (2006) Probability concepts in engineering planning and design. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Anleitner Michael A (2011) Power of deduction—failure modes and effects analysis for design. American Society for Quality, MilwaukeeGoogle Scholar
  7. Au SK (2005) Reliability-based design sensitivity by efficient simulation. Comput Struct 83(14):1048–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aven T, Jensen U (1999) Stochastic models in reliability. Springer, BerlinzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayala-Uraga E, Moan T (2007) Time-variant reliability evaluation of FPSO hull girder with long cracks. J Offshore Mech Arct Eng 129:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beck AT, Melchers RE (2004) On the ensemble crossing rate approach to time variant reliability analysis of uncertain structures. Probab Eng Mech 19:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beck AT, Melchers RE (2005) Barrier failure dominance in time variant reliability analysis. Probab Eng Mech 20:79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benaroya H, Rehak M (1988) Finite element methods in probabilistic structural analysis: a selective review. Appl Mech Rev 41(5):201–213zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bergman B, Mare J, Svensson T, Loren S (2009) Robust design methodology for reliability: exploring the effects of variation and uncertainty. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Billinton A, Ronald N (1992) Allan reliability evaluation of engineering systems: concepts and techniques. Springer, USzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bjerager P, Krenk S (1989) Parametric sensitivity in first-order reliability analysis. ASCE J Eng Mech 115(7):1577–1582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bucher CG, Bourgund U (1990) A fast and efficient response surface approach for structural reliability problems. Struct Saf 7(1):57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Budynas R (1998) Advanced strength and applied stress analysis. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Bunday BD (1991) Statistical methods in reliability theory and practice. Ellis Horwood, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. Burgazzi L (2008) About time-variant reliability analysis with reference to passive systems evaluation. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 93:1682–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cazuguel M, Renaud C, Cognard JY (2006) Time-variant reliability of nonlinear structures: application to a representative part of a plate floor. Qual Reliab Eng Int 22:101–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coleman JJ (1959) Reliability of aircraft structures in resisting chance failure. Operat Res 7(5):639–645zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cook RD (1995) Finite element modeling for stress analysis. Wiley, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. Crandall SH (1966) Some first-passage problems in random vibration. J Appl Mech 33:532–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crowder MJ, Kimber AC, Smith RL, Sweeting TJ (1991) Statistical analysis of reliability data. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Daniel S (2010) Reliability and optimization of structural systems. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Das PK, Zheng Y (2000) Cumulative formation of response surface and its use in reliability analysis. Probab Eng Mech 15(4):309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Der Kiureghian A, De Stefano M (1991) Efficient algorithm for second-order reliability analysis. ASCE J Eng Mech 117(1):2904–2923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Der Kiureghian A, Ke J-B (1988) The stochastic finite element method in structural reliability. Probab Eng Mech 3(2):83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Der Kiureghian A, Liu PL (1986) Structural reliability under incomplete probability information. ASCE J Eng Mech 112(1):85–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ditlevsen O, Madsen HO (1996) Structural reliability methods. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Eskinazi S (1975) Fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of our environment. Elsevier Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Faravelli L (1989) Response surface approach for reliability analysis. ASCE J Eng Mech 115:2763–2781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Frangopol DM, Kawatani M, Kim CW (2007) Reliability and optimization of structural systems: assessment, design, and life-cycle performance. Taylor & Francis, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Freddi A, Olmi G, Cristofolini L (2015) Experimental stress analysis for materials and structures: stress analysis models for developing design methodologies. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Freuenthal AM (1947) The safety of structures. ASCE Trans 112:125–129Google Scholar
  36. Ghanem RG, Spanos PD (1991) Spectral stochastic finite-element formulation for reliability analysis. J Eng Mech ASCE 117(10):2351–2372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gilks WR, Richardson S, Spiegelhalter D (1995) Markov Chain Monte Carlo in practice. Chapman & Hall, LondlonzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gregory L, Wang C, Xing L (2019) Dynamic system reliability: modeling and analysis of dynamic and dependent behaviors. Wiley, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  39. Guan XL, Melchers RE (2001) Effect of response surface parameter variation on structural reliability estimates. Struct Saf 23(4):429–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guo J, Du XP (2009) Reliability sensitivity analysis with random and interval variables. Int J Numer Methods Eng 78(13):1585–1617MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Haldar A, Mahadevan S (1999) Probability, reliability, and statistical methods in engineering design. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Hasofer AM, Lind NC (1974) Exact and invariant second-moment code format. ASCE J Eng Mech Div 100(EM1):111–121Google Scholar
  43. Haukaas T, Der Kiureghian A (2005) Parameter sensitivity and importance measures in nonlinear finite element reliability analysis. ASCE J Eng Mech 131(10):1013–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoang P (2006) Reliability modeling, analysis and optimization. World Scientific, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  45. Hohenbichler M, Rackwitz R (1981) Non-normal dependent vectors in structural safety. ASCE J Eng Mech Div 107(6):1227–1249Google Scholar
  46. Hohenbichler M, Rackwitz R (1983) First-order concepts in system reliability. Struct Saf 1(3):177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hohenbichler M, Rackwitz R (1986) Sensitivity and importance measures in structural reliability. Civil Eng Syst 3(2):203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hurtado JE, Alvarez DA (2003) Classification approach for reliability analysis with stochastic finite-element modeling. J Struct Eng 129(8):1141–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ibrahim RA (1987) Structural dynamics with parameter uncertainties. Appl Mech Rev 40(3):309–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Iyengar RN (1973) First passage probability during random vibration. J Sound Vib 31(2):185–193zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Karamchandani A, Cornell CA (1991) Sensitivity estimation within first and second-order reliability methods. Struct Saf 11(2):95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Karki R, Billinton R, Verma AK (2014) Reliability modeling and analysis of smart power systems. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kim SH, Na SW (1997) Response surface method using vector projected sampling points. Struct Saf 19(1):3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kiureghian AD (1986) Finite element methods in structural safety studies. Struct Saf Stud 3:40–52Google Scholar
  55. Kozachenko YV, Pogorilyak OO, Rozora IV, Tegza AM (2016) Simulation of stochastic processes with given accuracy and reliability. ISTE Press-Elsevier, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  56. Krishnaiah PR (2005) Handbook of statistics 5: time series in the time domain. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Lee I, Choi KK, Du L et al (2008) Dimension reduction method for reliability-based robust design optimization. Comput Struct 86(13–14):1550–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leitch RD (1988) Basic reliability engineering analysis. Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  59. Li J, Chen JB (2004) Probability density of evolution method for dynamic response analysis of structures with uncertain parameters. Comput Mech 34:400–409zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Li J, Chen JB (2005) Dynamic response and reliability analysis of structures with uncertain parameters. Int J Numer Meth Eng 62(1):289–315MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Li CC, Kiureghian AD (1993) Optimal discrimination of random fields. J Eng Mech 119(6):1136–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Li J, Chen JB, Fan WL (2007) The equivalent extreme-value event and evaluation of the structural system reliability. Struct Saf 29(2):112–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Liaw LD, Devries RI (2001) Reliability-based optimization for robust design. Int J Veh Des 25(1–2):64–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Liu WK, Belytschko T, Mani A (1986) Probability finite elements for nonlinear structural dynamics. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 56:61–81zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lu ZZ, Song SF, Yue ZF et al (2008) Reliability sensitivity method by line sampling. Struct Saf 30(6):517–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lu ZZ, Song J, Song SF et al (2010) Reliability sensitivity by method of moments. Appl Math Model 34(10):2860–2871MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lumley JL (2001) Fluid mechanics and the environment: dynamical approaches. Springer, New YorkzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Madsen HO, Tvedt L (1990) Methods for time-dependent reliability and sensitivity analysis. J Eng Mech 116(10):2118–2135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mangey R (2019) Modeling and simulation based analysis in reliability engineering. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  70. Matsuishi M, Endo T (1968) Fatigue of metals subjected to varying stress. Japan Soc. Mech, EngGoogle Scholar
  71. Megson THG (2014) Structural and stress analysis. Butterworth-Heinemann, DearbornGoogle Scholar
  72. Melchers RE (1992) Load-space formulation for time-dependent structural reliability. J Eng Mech 118(5):853–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Melchers RE (1999) Structural reliability analysis and prediction. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. Melchers RE, Ahammed M (2004) A fast approximate method for parameter sensitivity estimation in Monte Carlo structural reliability. Comput Struct 82(1):55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Minehane S, Duane R, O’Sullivan P et al (2000) Design for reliability. Macmillan Education UK, LondonGoogle Scholar
  76. Modarres M, Kaminskiy MP, Krivtsov V (2017) Reliability engineering and risk analysis: a practical guide. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. Nachlas JA (2017) Reliability engineering: probabilistic models and maintenance methods, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall/CRC, LondlonzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nakamura S, Nakagawa T (2010) Stochastic reliability modeling, optimization and applications. World Scientific Press, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  79. Nikolaidis E, Ghiocel DM, Singhal S (2005) Engineering design reliability handbook. CRC Press, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  80. Parkinson DB (1978) First-order reliability analysis employing translation systems. Eng Struct 1:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Phadke MS (1989) Quality engineering using robust design. Prentice-Hall International, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Rajashekhar MR, Ellingwood BR (1993) A new look at the response surface approach for reliability analysis. Struct Saf 12(3):205–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ranganathan R (2006) Structural reliability analysis and design. Jaico Publishing House, JaicoGoogle Scholar
  84. Rothbart H, Brown T (2006) Mechanical design handbook: measurement, analysis and control of dynamic systems (Handbooks). McGraw-Hill Professional, PennsylvaniaGoogle Scholar
  85. Rubinstein RY, Kroese DP (2017) Simulation and the Monte Carlo method. Wiley, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  86. Santos JLT, Siemaszko A, Gollwitzer S et al (1995) Continuum sensitivity method for reliability-based structural design and optimization. Mech Struct Mach 23(4):497–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shah PK, Subbarao EC, Mashelkar RA (1988) Heat transfer equipment design. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  88. Sherali HD, Ganesan V (2007) An Inverse reliability-based approach for designing under uncertainty with application to robust piston design. J Global Optim 37(1):47–62MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shih CJ, Tseng TC (2005) Reliability-based optimization of robust feasibility in mechanical design using PVP technique and fuzzy formulation. J Chin Instit Eng 28(1):77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Siegert AJF (1951) On the first passage time probability problem. Phys Rev 81:617–623MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Siu NO, Aldemir T, Mosleh A, Cacciabue PC, Göktepe BG (1994) Reliability and safety assessment of dynamic process systems. Springer, BerlinzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  92. Slocum AH (1992) Precision machine design. Society of Manufacturing, DearbornGoogle Scholar
  93. Song J, Kang WH (2009) System reliability and sensitivity under statistical dependence by matrix-based system reliability method. Struct Saf 31(2):148–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stamatis DH (2003) Failure mode and effect analysis—FMEA from theory to execution. American Society for Quality, MilwaukeeGoogle Scholar
  95. Stowe K (2007) An introduction to thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgezbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sudret B, Defaux G, Pendola M (2005) Time-variant finite element reliability analysis application to the durability of cooling towers. Struct Saf 27:93–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sues RH, Cesare MA (2005) System reliability and sensitivity factors via the MPPSS method. Probab Eng Mech 20(2):148–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sun HH, Bai Y (2003) Time-variant reliability evaluation of FPSO hull girders. Marine Struct 16:219–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Svetlitsky VA (2003) Statistical dynamics and reliability theory for mechanical structures. Springer, BerlinzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Thomopoulos NT (2013) Essentials of Monte Carlo simulation: statistical methods for building simulation models. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Trivedi KS (2016) Probability and statistics with reliability, queueing, and computer science applications. Wiley, New YorkzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Trivedi KS, Bobbio A (2017) Reliability and availability engineering: modeling, analysis, and applications. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ushakov IA (1994) Handbook of reliability engineering. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vanmarcke E, Shinozuka M, Nakagiri S et al (1986) Random fields and stochastic finite elements. Struct Saf 3(3–4):143–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vitali E, Motta M, Galli DE (2018) Theory and simulation of random phenomena. Springer, BerlinzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Waldron KJ (2016) Kinematics, dynamics, and design of machinery. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  107. Wasserman GS (2002) Reliability verification, testing, and analysis in engineering design. Marcel Dekker Inc, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Woo S (2017) Reliability design of mechanical systems: a guide for mechanical and civil engineers. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wu Y (1994) Computational methods for efficient structural reliability and reliability sensitivity analysis. AIAA J 32(8):1717–1723zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wu B (2013) Reliability analysis of dynamic systems. Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press Aerospace Series. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  111. Wu YT, Mohanty S (2006) Variable screening and ranking using sampling-based sensitivity measures. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 91(6):634–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Yadav OP, Bhamare SS, Rathore A (2010) Reliability-based robust design optimization: a multi-objective framework using hybrid quality loss function. Qual Reliab Eng Int 26(1):27–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yang Z, Zhang YM, Zhang XF et al (2012) Reliability sensitivity-based correlation coefficient calculation in structural reliability analysis. Chin J Mech Eng 25(3):608–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yi P, Cheng GD, Jiang L (2008) A sequential approximate programming strategy for performance-measure-based probabilistic structural design optimization. Struct Saf 30(2):91–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Youn BD, Xi ZM (2009) Reliability-based robust design optimization using the eigenvector dimension reduction (EDR) method. Struct Multidiscipl Optim 37(5):475–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zacks S (1992) Introduction to reliability analysis: probability models and statistical methods. Springer, New YorkzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhang YM (2000) Reliability design of automobile components. Beijing Institute of Technology Press, SAE China, Beijing, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  118. Zhang YM (2012) Introduction of mechanical reliability. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhang TX (2017) An improved high-moment method for reliability analysis. Struct Multidiscipl Optim 56(6):1225–1232MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zhang TX, He D (2018) An improved high-order statistical moment method for structural reliability analysis with insufficient data. J Mech Eng Sci 232(6):1050–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zhang YM, Liu QL (2002) Reliability-based design of automobile component. Proc Instit Mech Eng D J Automobile Eng 216(D6):455–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhang YM, Yang Z (2009) Reliability-based sensitivity analysis of vehicle component with non-normal distribution parameters. Int J Automotive Technol 10(2):181–194MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zhang YM, Chen SH, Liu QL, Liu TQ (1996a) Stochastic perturbation finite elements. Comput Struct 59(3):425–429zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zhang YM, Wen BC, Chen SH (1996b) PFEM formalism in Kronecker notation. Math Mech Solids 1(4):445–461zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhang YM, Wen BC, Liu QL (1998) First passage of uncertain single degree-of-freedom nonlinear oscillators. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 165(4):223–231zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zhang YM, Liu QL, Wen BC (2002) Quasi-failure analysis on resonant demolition of random structural systems. AIAA J 40(3):585–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zhang YM, Wang S, Liu QL, Wen BC (2003a) Reliability analysis of multi-degree-of-freedom nonlinear random structure vibration systems with correlation failure modes. Sci China E Technol Sci 46(5):498–508zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zhang YM, Liu QL, Wen BC (2003b) Practical reliability-based design of gear pairs. Mech Mach Theory 38(12):1363–1370zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zhang YM, Wen BC, Liu QL (2003c) Reliability sensitivity for rotor-stator systems with rubbing. J Sound Vib 259(5):1095–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zhang YM, He XD, Liu QL et al (2005a) Reliability sensitivity of automobile component with arbitrary distribution parameters. Proc Instit Mech Eng D J Automobile Eng 219(D2):165–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zhang YM, He XD, Liu QL, Wen BC (2005b) An approach of robust reliability design for mechanical component. Proc Instit Mech Eng E J Process Mech Eng 219(E3):275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zhang YM, He XD, Hu QL et al (2005c) Reliability-based optimization and robust design of a coil tube-spring with non-normal distribution parameters. Proc Instit Mech Eng E J Process Mech Eng 219(6):567–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zhang YM, He XD, Liu QL, Wen BC (2005d) Robust reliability design of banjo flange with arbitrary distribution parameters. J Pressure Vessel Technol Trans ASME 127(4):408–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zhang YM, Zhang L, Zheng JX, Wen BC (2006a) Neural network for structural stress concentration factors in reliability-based optimization. Proc Instit Mech Eng G J Aerospace Eng 220(G3):217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zhang YM, He XD, Liu QL, Wen BC (2006b) Robust reliability design of vehicle component with arbitrary distribution parameters. Int J Automotive Technol 7(7):859–866Google Scholar
  136. Zhang YM, Lü CM, Zhou N, Su CQ (2010) Frequency reliability sensitivity for dynamic structural systems. Mech Based Design Struct Mach 38(1):74–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Zhao YG, Ono T (2001) Moment method for structural reliability. Struct Saf 23(6):47–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Zheng Y, Das PK (2000) Improved response surface method and its application to stiffened plate reliability analysis. Eng Struct 22(5):544–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Zio E (2013) The Monte Carlo simulation method for system reliability and risk analysis. Springer, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Reliability and Safety (SRESA) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Mechanical and Automotive EngineeringZhaoqing UniversityZhaoqingChina

Personalised recommendations