International Journal of Information Technology

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 559–566 | Cite as

Watermarking of audio signals using iris data for protecting intellectual property rights of multiple owners

  • Saurav Joshi
  • Jeetendra Pande
  • B. K. Singh
Original Research


This paper proposes an effective method of incorporating the biometrics of multiple owners of multimedia content into audio signals as a watermark, for audio copyright and digital rights management. Watermarks are usually generated from random numbers or chaotic encryptions or by using a logo or a symbol as a seed to generate the watermark. From a legal perspective, a random number sequence or a pseudonumber sequence cannot satisfactorily form the basis of ownership. Moreover, such secret keys cannot be patented or copyrighted since keys need to be kept secret. If piracy disputes emerge, the logo or symbol used as watermark may not be considered adequate proof of ownership. This problem is complicated manifold if multiple owners are involved, as the secret key would be known to all the owners who may misuse this knowledge to the detriment of the other owners. To resolve these issues, the need for a legally enforceable watermark arises. To fulfil the need for a legally enforceable watermark that is acceptable to all the owners, one solution is to generate the watermark from the iris templates of multiple owners, as proposed in this method. The benefit of using iris-generated sequence (bio-keys) is that they will be unique, since irises of no two individuals are the same.


Intellectual property rights Iris pattern recognition Human auditory system Multilevel wavelet decomposition 


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Copyright information

© Bharati Vidyapeeth's Institute of Computer Applications and Management 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ECEBirla Institute of Applied SciencesBhimtalIndia
  2. 2.School of CS and ITUttarakhand Open UniversityHaldwaniIndia
  3. 3.Department of ECEBTKITDwarahatIndia

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