Design of skin implantable radiator with capacitive and CSRR loadings for ISM band applications

  • Sarita AhlawatEmail author
  • Garima Srivastava
  • Gaurav Kumar
Original Research


A skin implantable radiator with capacitive and CSRR loadings for the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band (2400.0–2480.0 MHz) biomedical applications is presented. The proposed antenna comprises of capacitively loaded radiating patch having centre square slot and a circular CSRR loaded ground plane. Compared with initial antenna design having a centre square slot, the proposed method provides effective reduction in size and enhanced axial ratio bandwidth. The miniaturized proposed antenna has small size of 127 mm3 (10 mm × 10 mm × 1.27 mm). The simulated parameters such as simulated coefficients of reflection, axial ratio and radiation pattern of proposed design are presented using two different 3D EM simulators in homogeneous simulation model having electrical properties of skin. The best simulated results in single-layer tissue simulation model are the -10 dB bandwidth that is 10.84% (2.3104–2.5610 GHz) and the axial ratio bandwidth (AR < 3 dB) that is 4.43% (2.3650–2.4699 GHz).The antenna has maximum gain of ~ − 22 dBi. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) field distribution is also presented that accounts for patient safety. The obtained results show that it will perform satisfactorily in designated band of operation.


Circularly polarized radiation Complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) Implantable antenna Industrial scientific medical (ISM) Miniaturization Patch antenna Wide axial ratio (AR) bandwidth 



The Professor Binod Kumar Kanaujia, School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi-110060, India, has provided his constant qualitative guidance throughout this research work.


  1. 1.
    Greatbatch W, Homes CF (1991) History of implantable devices. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 10:38–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kiourti A, Nikita KS (2012) A review of implantable patch antennas for biomedical telemetry: challenges and solutions. IEEE Antennas Propag Mag 54(3):210–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kim J, Rahmat-Samii Y (2004) Implanted antennas inside a human body: simulations, designs, characterizations. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech 52(8):1934–1943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Soontornpipit P, Furse CM, Chung YC (2004) Design of implantable microstrip antennas for communication with medical implants. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech 52(8):1944–1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kiourti A, Nikita KS (2012) Miniature scalp-implantable antennas for telemetry in the MICS and ISM bands: design, safety considerations and link budget analysis. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 60(8):3568–3575MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yilmaz T, Karacolak T, Topsakal E (2008) Characterization and testing of a skin mimicking material for implantable antennas operation at ISM band (2.4 GHz–2.48 GHz). IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag Lett 7:418–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wong H, So KK, Ng KB, Luk KM, Chan CH, Xue Q (2010) Virtually shorted patch antenna for circular polarization. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag Lett 9:1213–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li H, Guo YX, Liu C, Xiao S, Li L (2015) A miniature-implantable antenna for medradio-band biomedical telemetry. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag Lett 14:1176–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Iwasaki H (1996) A circularly polarized small-size microstrip antenna with a cross slot. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 44(10):1399–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wong KL, Lin YF (1998) Circularly polarised microstrip antenna with a tuning stub. Electron Lett 34(9):831–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu C, Xiao S, Guo YX, Bai Y-Y, Tang M-C, Wang B-Z (2012) Compact circularly-polarized microstrip antenna with symmetric-slit. Electron Lett 48(4):195–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li H, Guo Y-X, Xiao S-Q (2016) Broadband circularly polarised implantable antenna for biomedical applications. Electron Lett 52(7):504–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen H-D (2002) Compact circularly polarized microstrip antenna with slotted ground plane. Electron Lett 38(13):616–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Song JH, Lancaster MJ (1994) Capactively loaded microstrip loop resonator. Electron Lett 30(18):1494–1495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu Changrong, Guo Yong-Xin, Xiao Shaoqiu (2014) Capacitively loaded circularly polarized implantable patch antenna for ISM band biomedical applications. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propoag. 62(5):2407–2417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xu LJ, Guo YX, Wu W (2015) Miniaturized circularly polarized loop antenna for biomedical applications. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 63(3):922–930MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang K, Liu C, Liu X, Guo H, Yang X (2017) Miniaturized circularly polarized implantable antenna for ISM-band biomedical devices. Int J Antennas Propag 2017, Article ID 9750257, 9.
  18. 18.
    Dong Y, Toyao H, Itoh T (2012) Compact circularly-polarized patch antenna loaded with metamaterial structures. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 59(11):4329–4333CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bharati Vidyapeeth's Institute of Computer Applications and Management 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ambedkar Institute of Advanced Communication Technologies and ResearchNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations