A Brief Version of the Leahy Emotional Schema Scale: a Validation Study

  • Jong-Woo Suh
  • Heejae J. Lee
  • Nahyun Yoo
  • Han Min
  • Dong Gi SeoEmail author
  • Kee-Hong ChoiEmail author


The Leahy Emotional Schema Scale II (LESS II) was developed based on the emotional schema model, a meta-experiential model targeting emotion and emotion regulation (Leahy 2012). This model is important for identifying individuals’ negative beliefs about emotions as well as for dealing with noncompliance, resistance, and drop-outs in cognitive behavioral therapy. The primary aim of the current study was to explore the factor structures of the previously validated LESS II, and investigate its reliability and validity within a Korean sample. The secondary aim of this study was to examine how emotional schema would be associated with the emotional distress and behavioral problems of Korean college students. A total of 1478 college students participated in the current study and were administered questionnaires including the Leahy Emotional Schema Scale II, Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS), and College Adjustments Inventory-Short Form (CAIS). A series of statistical analyses resulted in the deletion of several items and emotional schema dimensions from the LESS II, owing to methodological and cultural reasons. The final results showed that the two-factor model with 10 items was the model with the better fit than was the original 14-factor structure model with 28 items. The total score of the 10-item LESS II showed great convergent validity, with moderate to strong positive correlations with CCAPS subscales. Furthermore, the 10-item LESS II demonstrated high internal consistency and shared approximately 87.05% of variance with the original 28-item LESS II. The findings of the current study provide strong support for the clinical and research application of the 10-item LESS II.


LESS-II Emotional Schema Emotion Regulation College students Validation 


Funding Information

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of the Korea and National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2017S1A5B6053101), the General Collaborative Research Project (2018S1A5A2A03030006), and the MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program (IITP-2018-0-01405) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyKorea UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyHallym UniversityChuncheon-siSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyKyungsung UniversityBusanSouth Korea
  4. 4.Sol Liberal Arts SchoolWoosong UniversityDaejeonSouth Korea

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